CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY GIFT OF ^fr. Gould Cornell University Library LC2851.T9521dW92 Industrial work of Tuskegee graduates an 3 1924 010 020 836 The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924010020836 Industrial Work Tuskegee Graduates and Former Students During the Year 1910 BY MONROE N. WORK Division of Research and Records Tuskegee Institute, Ala. ^ Jnistitute &ttge Tuskegee Institute, Alabama 1911 ?^ "'/<'/, TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 5 Chapter I Agricultural Work . . 6-21 Chapter II Work in The Trades . . 22-40 Chapter III Work of Trained Nurses . 41-46 Chapter IV Work of Offshoots of Tuske- gee Institute . . . 47-59 Chapter V The Value of an Industrial Education . . . 60-63 m9m >T» JV» Industrial JVork of Tuskegee Graduates and Former Students THE Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute endeavors to so train its students that they will go out and engage in some form of industrial work. The Institution's efforts have borne gdod fruit. Almost two-thirds of its 1,508 graduates and three-fourths of its 12,000 former students are directly or indirectly engaged in some form of industrial work. Of 101 graduates and former students who live in Atlanta, Georgia, and vicinity, 68, or 67 per cent, are directly engaged in industrial pursuits. Of 111 who live in Montgomery, Alabama, and vicinity, 92, or 93 per cent, are directly engaged in industrial pursuits. The trades and industries in which the graduates and former students are working are, agriculture, architecture, baking, blacksmithing, bookkeep- ing, brickmasonry, cabinet-making, carpentry, carriage- making, cooking demonstration, domestic service, dressmaking, stationary engineering, elec- trical engineering, firemen, horticulture, harness-making, machinists, millin- ery, mining, molding, trained nursing, painting, plumbing, printing, sawmill- ing, shoemaking, tailoring, tinsmithing, wheelwrighting and woodturning. Many of the graduates and former students are conducting businesses connected with some trade, such as architecture, the bakery business, black- smithing and wheelwrighting, the florist business, millinery, printing, shoe- making, tailoring and tinsmithing. A large number, though not engaged primarily in industrial work, supplement their regular work by some form of industrial work, as, for ex- ample, a great many supplement their teaching by farming. In order to find out just what industrial success is being made by per- sons sent out from Tuskegee, a special study was made during the year 1910 of 746 individuals, taken at random, 417 graduates and 329 former students. The trades in which they are engaged, the length of time they have worked at these trades, their success in their work, their property accumulations, and their standing in the various communities where they live have been in- vestigated. In this connection the industrial work of the various schools that have been founded by graduates and former students has also been studied. Throughout the study especial effort has been made to find out just what effect the work of the persons sent out from Tuskegee is having upon the people among whom they are working. The last chapter is devoted to a discussion of the increase in the earning capacity of industrially trained persons, and the value in dollars and cents that Tuskegee Institute's work in training Negro youths has been to the South.  CHfAPTER I. Agricultural ff^ork THIRTY of the graduates and former students are teaching Agriculture in various schools. Of these Wallace W. Hayes, '09-, teaches Aferi- cultuTe at the Snow HSU Normal and Industrial Institute, Snow Hill, Ala.; S. J. Willoughby, '05, at the Prentiss Normal and Industrial Institute; Prentiss, Mississippi; William Harris Crutcher, '02, Dennis A. Starks, '08, and F. H. Gardoza, '01, at the Florida State Normal School, Tallahassee, Florida; RoUin W. James, '04, St. Paul Normal and Industrial School, Lawrenceville, Virginia; Edward D. Jenkins, '01, at the Voorhees Industrial School, Denmark, South Carolina; and Eugene LeGompte, '03, at the University of Porto Rico, Porto Rico. Louis A. Smith, '98, has for 12 years been in the employ of the Forest City Creamery Company, of Rockford, 111. He is one of the most trusted and proficient employees of the company, and does some of the most difficult and delicate work connected, with that creamery. He began work at $1 25 per day and now receives $19 per week, with vacation' and salary con- tinued. He has accumulated considerable property. He has recently built a nice eight-room residence at a cost of $3,000< also another house for rent- ing. He owns eight other lots and is preparing to build on some of them Eight of the graduates are working for the United States Department of Agriculture as ; Agricultural Demonstration Agents, in the states of Ala- bama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Virginia. The purpose of the Demonstration Work is to get a farmer in a community to set aside a small portion of his land and to pl^nt and cultivate it under the direction of a Government expert. Other farmers in the community are invited to come and see how the selected plot is prepared, planted and cultivated. They are induced to put into practice what they have learned. Thus by means of a single tract of land, the farming methods of an entire community are imprioved, and the yield of products greatly increased. Where farmers formerly raised 5 to 15< bushels of corn per acre, they are now, be- cause of the teaching of, these Demonstration Agents, raising from 30 to 60 bushels. Where from 150 to 200 pounds of lint cotton were produced, per acre, now from 250 t-o 600 pounds are being produced per acrei The Demonstration Agents do not confine themselves to teaching im- proved farming methods, but they also assist the people in getting better live stock, having better, gardens and improving their homes. Idhn:B. Pierce, '97, is District Demonstration Agent in Virginia. He has a number of other agents working under him. Pierce operates a farm  <3 _ 2 en a c *^Jifei Graduates and Former Students of his own in the district where he works and has exerted a profound influ- ence upon the people. In addition to teaching them better methods of farming, he has taught them how to have better homes, better schools and better churches. Edward D. Jenkins, '01, in addition to his work as Superintendent of Agriculture at the Voorhees Industrial School, also carries on Demonstration work among the farmers in the vicinity of the school. James R. Council, '07, is Demonstration Agent for Okfuskee County, Oklahoma. About two years ago Council went out to Oklahoma and en- gaged in farming. Seeing that the neighboring farmers needed instruction, he began to teach them. The results were so gratifying that he deVoted more of his time to this and extended his teaching to various parts of Okfus- kee County. What he was doing was called to the attention of the Gov- ernor of Oklahoma and to the United States Department of Agriculture. After working seven months without a salary. Council was regularly ap- pointed Demonstration Agent. He has been able to get the farmers very much interested in the Demonstration Work, and has organized successful corn clubs among the boys. James A. Booker, '07, is Demonstration Agent for Bolivar County, Mississippi. This is the county in which the famous Negro town of Mound Bayou is located. There are about 6,000 colored farmers in the immediate vicinity of Mound Bayou. Booker is directing the Agricultural operations of this Negro community. He has done a good work there on the farms, in the homes and with the schools. Thomas M. Campbell, '06, is a District Demonstration Agent and works in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. He was one of the first col- ored Demonstration Agents to be appointed by the United States Govern- ment. He did his first work in Macon County, Alabama, where he was able to greatly increase the yield of the cotton and corn of the colored farmers. During the two years that he was agent for Macon County, he got a large percentage of the farmers to adopt the intensive methods of farming, to have better breeds of horses and cows, and to raise more chick- ens and to have gardens. The excellence of his work in this county caused the Government to promote him to a larger position and to put the work among the colored farmers in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana under his direction. Harry Simms, '08, is Demonstration Agent for Wilcox County, Ala- bama. There are over 5,000 farmers in this county. He is doiiig a suc- cessful work there. The farmers have been organiited into Farmers' Im- provement Clubs, and the boys into Corn Clubs. Through these clubs, the homes are improved and better live stock, poultry and gardens are produced,  Industrial Work of Tuskegee and the boys are being interested in farming. Mr. Simms has the hearty co-operation of the white planters. They invite him on their plantations, provide demonstration plots and instruct their tenants to follow his direc- tions. On one large plantation the planter called his tenants together and told them that "this man is sent by the Government and you are to do whatever he tells you." The white plantation owners are also contributing a large number of premiums for a colored County Fair to be held in the fall. C. D. Menafee, '95, is farming at Opelika, Ala. He owns a good farm there of some 60 acres, which adjoins the town, and also some city property. He was so successful as a farmer that the United States engaged him to be a Demonstration Agent for Lee County, Alabama. He is mak- ing a success of this work. Washington Tate, '06, is the United States Demonstration Agent for Macon County, Alabama. He is doing a most excellent work. Under his direction the farmers of this county have got hold of prolific varieties of corn, and where formerly they raised one small scrubby ear per stalk, they are now raising an average of six good ears per stalk. In communities where there had never been any gardens before, he has got the people to have gardens the entire year, and from one such community he recently brought a two-horse wagonload of cabbage from the gardens of ten families, which the Tuskegee Institute Cannery made into kraut for these families. As a further example of what he is doing, mention is made of the Fort Hull Community Farmers' Improvement Club. A committee from Tuskegee Institute re- cently inspected the gardens belonging to the members of this club and reported as follows: The trip from beginning to end was full of inspiration and encouragement to both the Committee and to those we sought to help. Forty gardens were inspected. Following are the names of the different kinds of veg- etables we found growing in the gardens: peas, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, radishes, beets, turnips, cucumbers, rape, collards, snap beans, lima beans, corn, mustard, pepper, lettuce and carrots. The gardens are all in good condition. The best three received prizes. One of the gardens inspected received a low mark. The owner said that he tried to work his garden independently of the Farmers' Improvement Club, but he saw that he was failing and therefore joined the club just in time to enter the contest. Since joining the club, his garden has improved. We inspected one garden which the owner, a woman, told us that she planted in part by moonlight because she did not have the time in the day. Though we were inspecting only gardens, we could not overlook the fact that the front yards, back yards, chicken-yards, hog-pens and horse-stables were clean and presented a good appearance. Some of the front yards had flowers in them. The committee was much impressed with the cleanly, healthy, wholesome appearance of these forty homes. The work of the Fort Hull Farmers' Improvement Club has been so helpful to this community that Mr. M. S, Rys^ell, one of the wealthiest  Graduates and Former Students white plantation owners in Macon County, has become a member of the club. In speaking about why he had made himself a member, he said that he had done this through no sentimental reason, but because he believed it to be a good business proposition, and that whatever improved the economic condition of the colored people in his community, would also be a benefit to himself. Mr. Russell writes the following concerning this club: To Whom It May Concern: The Farmers' Improvement Club which was organized through the Agent of the United States Department of Agriculture, in the Fort Hull community, some six months ago, in my opinion is one of the best organizations that I know of, for the land owner as well as the tenant. This club has about one hundred and fifty members and it can be very plainly seen that they are taking more interest in home affairs, gardens and farms. I think it would be beneficial to the whole South if such clubs would be organized in every farming community. Very truly, (Signed) Morgan S. Russell. Mr. J. S. Webb, another wealthy farmer writes: To Whom It May Concern: I have watched with pleasure the Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration Work in Macon County for the past four years. I wish to state that it has been of great benefit to the farmers of this county. I do not believe that Macon County could have a better agent for this work than Mr. Washington A. Tate. He is especially adapted to this section inas- much as he understands so thoroughly the uneducated farmer, the one he is striving so un- tiringly to help. I am proud to recommend Mr. Tate to all who are interested in farming, (Signed) J. S. Webb, Merchant and Planter. The Demonstration Work, as far as possible, co-operates with the pub- lic schools. In Sambo community, 22 miles from Tuskegee Institute, Mr. Tate helped the people to make a school garden. He thus describes how this was done: After quite an effective devotional exercise the president introduced me and turned the house over to me. It was at this point that I put before them the plan of having a school garden as an object lesson to the community. Every one readily agreed to aid in every possible way to get this plot prepared. Fencing was to be done. Monday night the trees for fencing stood in the forest, uncut, but Tuesday at twelve o'clock found the garden fence very nearly up, with men, women and children hard at work for its completion. "By the co-operation of the teachers and patrons, there is now in the Sambo community a well-constructed garden containing a half acre, well prepared and planted with rape for winter use." Stephen T. Powell, who graduated from Tuskegee Institute in 1903, is doing a very unique and important agricultural work at Hilton Head Is-  Industrial Work of Tuskegee land, South Carolina. This Island is about 18 miles long and 8 miles wide. It has upon it about 50 white people, and 3.000 Negroes. Fishing and oys- tering are the chief industries. Powell found the people farming almost altogether by hand. Three persons carried on the planting of grain: the first person would dig a hole for the seed, the second would plant it and the third would cover it. He introduced the use of the plow. Through the generosity of the owners of the Island, Mr. Powell has been given the privi- lege of selling the land in small tracts to colored people, and in this way to gradually build up an agricultural colony. Numbers of families are being brought from the inland part of South Carolina and from other states. Mr. Powell has a farm of 25 acres which he operates as a demonstration plot for the other farmers. He is in daily contact with each family and in this way is able to exert a very helpful influence on their daily lives. He is taking an active part in their church work, and conducts a farmers' conference. The ten public schools on the Island are also under his charge, and through him receive aid from the Jeanes Fund. Two other graduates of Tuskegee are associated with Mr. Powell in this work. One of these, Chas. H. Thurston, '08, who has charge of one of the schools, writes: "When I arrived here I found everything in a dilapi- dated condition. The schoolhouse was surrounded by weeds and bushes as tall as itself, the fence had fallen down, the steps were torn away and there were no knobs on the door. I taught the children the use of lime and water. In the spring we started a garden in which the pupils took great de- light. The term which began with so many discouragements, we closed with great success." Many other graduates through their work as teachers in the rural schools are doing good work in improving agricultural conditions. Among these may be mentioned Melvin Judkins, '07, who is working in Barbour County, Alabama. In order to convince the people that he had come to do them good, Mr. Judkins worked among them all of last summer without pay. He has been able to secure the assistance of the Jeanes Fund and now has another teacher assisting him. She teaches industries in his school part of the week and the other part of the week travels throughout the county, teaching the people industrial lessons. Sarah L. Woodall, '02, is doing a most excellent work among the farm- ers in her home community, in the eastern part of Macon County, Alabama. She teaches sewing and gardening, and is very active in the local Farmers' Conference. The following report from her appeared May 20, 1910, in The Messenger, published at Tuskegee Institute: Dear Messenger: Brownsville community is not heard from often, but the people are down to actual  Graduates and Former Students work, and if the same working spirit is kept up, their accomplishments will speak louder than words. School closed three weeks ago; the children learned much that will be helpful to them in life. We had one or two patrons who kicked against extending the term, but as the kick came from parties who are not very valuable citizens, anyway, the term was extended. Last Saturday, May 7th, we held a very interesting Farmers' Conference. The at- tendance was not large but everyone was deeply interested. Two subjects were intelligent- ly discussed. First, The Best Method of Cultivating Corn. Second, How Gardens Should be Cultivated, and Why. Each one went away with a better knowledge of cultivating corn and working gardens. Brownsville is one of the most prosperous communities in the county. The people have here an excellent school building, good comfortable homes and own 2,775 acres of land. Two other graduates, Chas. G. Campfield, '04, and his wife, Isabella Kent Campfield, '07, are carrying on a very interesting work in one of the rural schools of Macon County, Alabama. They are articulating the school with every phase of the community's life. With the assistance of Tuske- gee Institute a combination dwelling and schoolhouse has been built. It contains five rooms: a bed room, a sitting room, a dining room and a special class room. There are also a barn and a garden. The children of the community attend here just as they do at any public school, but instead of sitting down in a class-room, they are divided up into sections, and while some cook, some clean the house, some clean the yard, some work in the garden some care for the live stock and some are receiving literary instruction. In this way they are taught how to care for a home, and how to work prop- erly in the field. The lessons in Arithmetic and English are drawn from the industrial work which is being carried on; and thus the ordinary school subjects are taught in a new and interesting manner. The pupils by this means connect their daily life with the school and literary studies, and also find that in their daily work, there is much that is interesting. Mr. and Mrs. Campfield conduct a young people's club, a mothers' club and a farmers' conference. At a recent meeting of the Tuskegee Monthly Farmers' Institute, the president of the Mothers' Club gave a very interest- ing account of the helpful work that was being done among the women of the community by Mrs. Campfield. The president of the local Farmers' Conference also reported that never in the history of the community had they had such intelligent farming, such good gardens and so great a rivalry of the farmers. This he said was due to the work of Mr. Campfield. Some Successful Farmers Henry A. Carlisle, '89, has for twenty years been teaching and farming near West Point, Ga. He owns 123 acres of land and two valuable houses  Industrial Work of Tuskegee and lots in West Point. His property is worth between $7,000 and $8,000. Each year for the past 27 years, he has been able to save at least $100. Sandy A. Hill, '07, is doing good work as a farmer at Beggs, Okla- homa. He owns his farm. Terry Jackson, a former student, is a farmer near Bonus, Texas. He writes as follows concerning his work: Dear Principal: I left Tuskegee in 1904 after having reached the A. Middle Class. I have been busy ever since, For three years I taught agriculture in the Conroe .College, Conroe, Texas; but I was not satisfied at this, and have since been farming for myself, and in ad- dition, I conduct a grocery and dry goods store. I have sixteen acres of fine white potatoes planted, which will be ready for the mar- ket soon. I also have forty-five acres of corn in c.ultivation. I am interested in swine raising and have twenty-two head of good hogs. I will never forget the training which I received at Tuskegee Institute, and regret that I was not able to finish the course. (Signed) Terry G. Jackson. James E. Edwards, a former student, is in the poultry business near Montgomery, Alabama. He writes as follows: Dear Principal Washington: I count it a pleasure to write you a letter to let you you know something of the work which I have done since leaving Tuskegee Institute in 1904. I went to Shreveport, Louisiana, where I spent two and one half years in the dairy business, In 1907 I came to Montgomery, and am now engaged in the poultry business, and am meeting with success. I married in 1908, and have a most helpful companion. We own a nice home and two additional lots. We attend church regularly each Sunday. (Signed) James £. Edwards. John Elders, a former student, is doing well as a farmer at High Ridge, Ala. Chas. Lewis Williams who left Tuskegee in 1898, has for ten years been successfully farming at his home, Waugh, Alabama. He owns his farm and is a valuable man in his community. The following testimonials are from his white neighbors: To Whom It May Concern: — This is to certify that we have known C. L. Williams since boyhood and that he has always conducted himself in a manner that will meet the approval of anyone. He is always polite and holds the respect of his neighbors. He is now engaged in farming and takes an active interest in Sabbath school work. (Signed) M. W. McDale, Justice of the Peace; L. S. Wiglesworth, Postmaster; James Mc- Dade, M. D.; J. W. Plicer. To Whom It May Concern: — This is to certify that we have known Chas. L. Williams for several years and have had business relations with him for the past two years, and we have not had a customer  Graduates and Former Students that was more polite and business-like. We have always found him perfectly honest and diligent about whatever he was engaged in. We have never heard anyone speak of him in any other than a complimentary way. Should anyone see fit to entrust him with any business, we feel confident he would always perform his duty to the best of his ability. (Signed) J. K. McClurkin, I. D. McClurkin. Chas. E. Bynes, '02, is a successful farmer at Millen, Georgia. He owns his farm. He is also a graduate of the Nurse Training Department of Tuskegee Institute. Because there is no other trained nurse in that vicinity, he is called upon to do a good deal of nursing. Lucius W". Scott, '04, is farming and dealing in timber at Facklers, Al- abama. Alfred P. Gazaway, '91, is a teacher and truck gardener in Jefferson County, Alabama. He has recently built a good home in Cardiff, Ala- bama. WilHam Sidney Burrel, '06, a contractor and builder at Lawyers, Vir- ginia, is also farming at that place. Geo. W. Lovejoy, '88, in addition to his law practice, is in the truck farming and dairy business at Mobile, Alabama. Frank L. Todd, a former student, who entered Tuskegee in 1881, the first year of its opening, is now a farmer and a rural mail carrier in Mont- gomery County, Alabama. James H. Nichols, '07, is a farmer and preacher at Black Hawk, Miss- issippi. Chas. M. Jones, '06, is a farmer and machinist at Stallo, Mississippi. He is successful in both lines of his work. Horace B. Bennett, '08, farms for himself at Stallo, Mississippi. Jerry D. McCord, '07, is a farmer and a blacksmith at Stallo, Miss- issippi. He owns a good blacksmith shop there fitted up with the latest tools. He is the general machinist and all around workman for the com- munity. A number of his white neighbors send the following interesting testimonials: To Whom It May Concern: J. D. McCord has done both constructive and repair work for us, as carpenter and blacksmith, and has given perfect satisfaction. Seems to be well prepared for the work. (Signed) Yellow Pine Lumber Co., E. B. Causey, Manager. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that we the undersigned are well acquainted with J. D. McCord (colored), and know him to be an energetic man. He is making a success on his farm near Stallo, Mississippi. He bought his farm on credit and now has it paid for. He is also a good blacksmith and stands well in the community. (Signed)  Industrial Work of Tuskegee R. G. Moore, Sheriff; F. B. Dewers, Clerk of Circuit Court; F. L. Bryan, County Superintendent; D. Yarborough, Banker; John O. Gresham, Mayor, Stallo; W. A. McKee, Marshall, Stallo; W. G. Snow, Justice of the Peace; J. D. King. George K. Gordon, '02, after working several years on a dairy farm and as Superintendent of Agriculture in the Downingtown, Pennsylvania, Indus- trial School, is now settled and farming at his home, Abbeville, Alabama, where he owns a valuable tract of land near the town. Here he is assisting a widowed sister to care for her seven small children. In order to better do this, he is building a comfortable eight-room house. He pays taxes on $2,500 worth of property. Thomas Campbell and William Blanks, former students, have for sev- eral years owned and successfully operated their farms near Tallassee, Ala- bama. H. L. Todd, a former student, owns a large plantation near Union Springs, Alabama. He also has a good home in that town, and is a suc- cessful farmer and business man. R. C. Lucas, who was a student here in 1895, runs a two-horse farm at Mt. Meigs, Alabama, and also works at the carpenter's trade. Smart B. Boyd, '87, is a merchant and truck farmer at Greenville, Ala. He owns property there. Moses Silas Randall, a former student, has for twelve years worked on his own farm at Belleville, Alabama. During his extra time he runs en- gines for sawmills and gins. He says, "I never lose any time unless it can- not be helped." He owns 160 acres of land. The esteem in which he is held by his white neighbors is shown by the following testimonials: Hon. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Ala., Dear Sir: — The bearer of this, Moses S. Randall, I have known since a child. After his course at your school, I sold him a farm of 80 acres, on time. He worked faithfully, teaching an occasional school, paying in full for the farm, and since, adding 80 acres more to the farm, all of which he has paid for, and is now out of debt. I consider him perfectly hon- est, truthful and reliable, and a model for his people to imitate. (Signed) W. M. Newton, Postmaster. Belleville, Ala., July 23, 1910. To Whom It May Concern: — We have known Moses S. Randall about all of his life and he is an honest and moral man. He has bought and paid for a nice farm and is making a good living for himself and large family. (Signed) R. H. Riggs, Justice of the Peace; C. D. Skinner, Constable; P. B. Skinner,  Graduates and Former Students M. D.; C. S. Skinner, Dentist; J. D. Skinner, Justice of the Peace; C. C. Newton, Notary Public. W. G. Brantley, S. T.; D. S. Crura, S. T. Honorable Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, A'a., Dear Sir:— I have been asked to sign the above testimonial concerning Moses Randall, but I prefer saying some fevf things not said therein. I have known Moses Randall for almost eleven years and have always found him hon- est and true in every relation of life. He is a safe and clear headed leader of his race, and is doing all that he can to elevate his people, socially, morally and spiritually. He is a deacon of his church and a safe adviser and supporter of his pastor. He is humble, polite and patriotic, yet ever in the forefront of every good cause. Moses has the esteem of every white man in this section, so far as I know, and as well of his own color. We have homes, good homes, for all that you can send us like Moses. He not only has a good farm, but he is constantly improving same in an intelligent manner. He has a neatly constructed house that is an inspiration to his colored friends. Yours truly and fraternally, (Signed^ (Rev.) S. P. Lindsay, Pastor Baptist Church. Gabriel McGuire, a former student has been farming for sixteen years at Brundidge, Alabama. Prominent white citizens of that place say of him: This is to certify that Gabriel McGuire is a citizen of our community, he has been teaching and farming for a number of years, has given satisfaction as a teacher, and has been fairly successful as a farmer. He is temperate, law-abiding and stands well with all who know him. Signed: M. Lightfoot, President Brundidge Banking Co., F. C. Bass, Vice-president, Brun- didge Banking Co.; J. E. Leverette, W. L. Fleming, James T. Damag, R. C. Dickinson, Mayor; John A. McEachem, M. D.; J. H. Lawson, Justice of the Peace. C. H. Brown of Norwood, Louisiana, a former student writes as fol- lows: Dear Mr. Washington: I know that you and others who are doing so much for the students of Tuskegee, are proud to hear from them. I left Tuskegee in 1903. I had gone through the A Middle Class. I worked as a florist for one year in Birmingham, Alabama. Since that time (1904), I have been teach- ing and farming here. I am going into the poultry business and have for this purpose forty-five laying hens. I do the work on Saturdays and after school in the evening, because I am busy teaching from six to eight months in the year. I do not have any trouble in find- ing work to do. The Tuskegee Spirit makes it find me, and I don't have to look for it. I have bought a lot in Wilson, Louisiana, with a frontage of 188 feet. Will build in a few months. Have a small bank account. (Signed) C. H. Brown. Wade H. Smilie, '90, of Gause, Texas, is another farmer teacher. He [151 Industrial Work of Tuskegee teaches six months of the year and devotes all the remainder of the year to his farm. He receives $50.00 per month for teaching and $700.00 per year for produce from his farm. William and Isaac Bridgeforth, former students, are successful farmers at Strange, Alabama, where they each own 200 acres of land. William W. Randall, '04, is a farmer in Mississippi. He says: I have a farm of 70 acres all paid for. I work a small portion, rent 20 acres and have the rest in woodland and pasture. In addition to my farming, I have taught school and worked at the brickmasonry trade. My house has five rooms. I own eight head of live stock and a number of poultry. I killed enough pork to last me the entire year. I am out of debt. John T. Rutledge, '87, is a farmer and carpenter at Sellers, Alabama. He does most of the carpenter work for the community and operates a small farm upon which he raises cotton, corn, potatoes, peanuts, sugar cane and peas. He owns seven head of cattle and one horse. He writes: I get a little better off each year." John Wesley Perry, '90, has farmed for seventeen years at Myrtle, Ala- bama. He owns his farm, and, notwithstanding that 1909 was a bad crop year, he raised 21 bales of cotton, 100 bushels of corn, 10 tons of hay, 20 bushels of field peas, 120 bushels of sweet potatoes; made 87 gallons of syrup and killed 950 pounds of meat. He estimates his entire crop to be worth $2,272. Up to April, 1910, he had sold $1,610 worth of his past year's produce. John Calhoun Thomas, a former student, who was one of the first students to enter Tuskegee Institute, has been farming for 17 years near Prattville, Alabama. He owns nine head of mules and horses, 13 cows, 7 of which he is milking; a large number of hogs and chickens; and has 1,034 acres of land on which are 16 tenant houses. A number of his white neighbors say concerning him: Prattville, Alabama, July 19, 1910. Dr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Alabama, Dear Sir: We, the undersigned citizens of Autauga County, take pleasure in saying that we have known John C. Thomas personally and in a business way for about seventeen years and during that time he has been very successful in a business way. We further state that we know him to be of high moral character, and that he is a hard working, industrious man and is considered by all of our citizens to be far above the average in intelligence. We also know that he has in his possession or under his control more than a thousand acres of land in this county; that the same is well improved and furnished with stock and cattle. As a Negro we class John C. Thomas among the foremost of his race and take pleas- ure in recommending him to his people. Very respectfully, P. E. Alexander, Attorn ey-at-Law; Z. Abney Registrar in Chancery; Joe A. Cham- bliss, Sheriff; Chas. Booth, Postmaster; I. W. Hagler, M. D,  Graduates and Former Students Darius H. Henry, '90, is one of the most prosperous farmers in Wilcox County, Alabama, where he owns a farm of 1,115 acres, well stocked with horses, cows, mules and hogs. He owns a well equipped ginnery, grist mill and saw mill. He was for some time the United States Demonstrator for Wilcox County. At the 1910 Commencement he gave $100 to his Alma Mater. The leading white citizens of his town and county send the follow- ing very complimentary testimonial: Dr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. We, the undersigned white citizens of Coy and Wilcox County, do hereby testify to the good standing of D. H. Henry, a graduate of your school. His chief occupation is agriculture. He is strict in business and very successful, and has thereby accomplished much. He is polite, unassuming in his deportment, perfectly honest in his dealings and is without exception highly respected by all that know him. He is regarded as one of the foremost and law abiding citizens of his race. (Signed) Geo. E. Davis, W. D. Powe, J. M. McLeod, Merchant and Farmer, Coy; Wm. A. McLeod, Postmaster, Coy; J. C. Godbold, M. D.; F. A. Powe, Merchant and Farmer; N. M. Newell, Merchant and Farmer, Asahel; R. A. Newell, Merchant and Farmer, Asahel; S. D. Moore Sheriff; J. B. Holman, Jr., Clerk of Probate Court; E. W. Berry, Banker, Camden; Pat M. Donnelly, Clerk Circuit Court; Geo. C. Boltz, Postmaster, Camden; M. J. Bonner, Banker, Camden; C. E. Primm, Farmer, Coy; H. Van DeVoort, Tax Collector; B. M. Miller, Judge of 4th Judicial Circuit; J. N. Stanford, Probate Judge; S. L. Jones, Lawyer, Camden; S. D. Bloch, Camden. Macon County Farmers Macon County, Alabama, the county in which Tuskegee Institute is located, has a number of successful farmers who are graduates and former students of the school. Several of these are noted below: George Washington Pace, a former student has for twenty years farmed successfully in the southeastern part of the county, where he owns his place. Hattie E. Wommack, '03, is a teacher in the county. She also owns 93 acres of land, and with her mother, does very successful farming. They have won several prizes at community fairs. J. W. Gilmer, a former student, has farmed for a number of years in the northern part of the county. He owns 465 acres of land. A. H. Adams, a former student, is a farmer in the county. He has forty acres of land. S. D. and William Flake are farmers near Tuskegee Institute. They own 72 acres of land. Dennis Upshaw, '95, owns one of the best farms and homes in Macon County. His farm and home have to a large extent been a model for his community, and have done a great deal toward inspiring the people to im-  Industrial Work of Tuskegee prove their homes and their farms. Mr. Upshaw is also a successful minis- ter and is a graduate of the Bible School Department of Tuskegee Insti- tute. William E. Burton, who graduated from the Bible School Department in 1909, is also successfully combining farming and preaching. He has recently bought 130 acres of land a few miles from Tuskegee Institute. He depends upon the farm for his living and is thus able "to preach without any reference to salary." Anthony Griffin, a former student, has for many years been a success- ful farmer and teacher in this county. He owns 160 acres of land. Isaac Simmons, another former student, has farmed for many years at Creek Stand. He owns 80 acres. Hector Goodwyn, a former student, farms near Cross Keys. He owns 46 acres. Fred R. Parker, another former student, farms in this same commu- nity. James Simpson, a former student, owns and farms 160 acres of land in the northern part of the county. Reuben CoUins, is a successful farmer of Macon County. R. B. Potts, a former student, has for 29 years been a teacher and farmer. He was one of the first persons to go out from Tuskegee Institute. At the first place where he taught, he found the people did not own any land, or have a church building or schoolhouse. He assisted the people in securing these. In 1885 he organized a Farmers' Club. Its object was to assist the people in the community where he was working to own their homes, to take better care of their families, to educate their children, and to improve their farming. As an example, he settled there and bought forty acres of land, upon which he has resided and farmed ever since. He has a good home, cows and hogs. Has not been without milk and butter for ten years. He also has a good orchard, from which his wife last year put up 160 jars and cans of fruit. John H. Phillips and Columbus Barrant, former students, are farming near Tuskegee Institute. They own respectively 40 and 37 acres. Perry R. Williams, a former student, is a carpenter and farmer. He owns 230 acres. S. D. Lumpkins a former student, who left the school in 1900, is a suc- cessful farmer in the western part of the county. He owns a good farm and has a comfortable home. Allen L. Burks, '00, has followed farming for eight years. In 1900 he went to Africa to assist in the introduction of modern cotton growing in Togoland, for the German Government. On his return from Africa, he  THOMAS AlvlDEBSON, '98, A SUCCESSFUL PARMER OP MACON COUNTY, ALABAMA. PRODUCTS FROM HIS FARM. Graduates and Former Students engaged in farming near Tallassee, Alabama. He is now employed as man- ager of a large plantation in Macon County. Thomas Anderson, '98, owns 40 acres of land a few miles from Tuske- gee Institute, from which in 1909, he cleared $600. In addition to this land he owns property in Florida and Georgia, He writes the following in- teresting letter: Dear Principal Washington: Five years ago when I bought land in Macon Couuty, near Tuskegee Institute, I had nothing but a hard time, a good wife, and a two-year old boy. My credit, however, was good and I bought torty acres of land on time. By constant, patient toil and close econo- my, I have paid for the forty acres, and also for three G;ood mules, 3 cows, and $300 worth of farm implements. Although 1909 was an unfavorable crop year, with one mule I was able to raise more than $600 worth of produce on my farm. I was offered $45 per month to work for a gentleman in Florida, but I would not accept this because I feel that there are great things in store for me on my farm. (Signed) Thomas Anderson. James A. Merchant, a former student, is a successful farmer and teacher in the northern part of the county. He is a good example of the kind of persons that Tuskegee endeavors to send out into the rural communities. He is the leader of the people of his community in every sense. He has been instrumental in building a good schoolhouse in the community. He is president of the local Farmers' Conference, and has for the past two years conducted a three days' Agricultural School for the farmers of the community. John C. Calloway, '96, is a teacher and farmer in the southern part of the county. He is another example of the kind of teachers Tuskegee is sending into rural communities. He owns 100 acres of land and has a small store carrying a $SOO-stock. He has a part interest in a 42-horse-power gin and grist mill. He has been instrumental in building a good school for the people of his community and takes the lead in all movements for the com- munity's improvement. Frank R. and Dow L. Reid, popularly known as the Reid Brothers, own and operate one of the largest farms in the county. Frank, the elder brother, left the school in 1888, and Dow, the younger, in 1891. Before attending Tuskegee, they had lived upon a rented farm with their father, but after returning home they decided to buy a farm of their own. Although they had little or no money, they entered into an agreement to purchase 320 acres at $5.50 per acre. Within a few years they had paid the whole amount, $1,760. They then bought another farm of 225 acres at $10 per acre. They now own 711 acres of the best land in the county. They use the latest improved farming implements, which include plows, mowers, rakes, harrows, self-binders, etc. They own 33 head of mules and horses, 70 head of cattle and 25 head of hogs. They own and operate a large cotton gin.  Industrial Work of Tuskegee Last year, in addition to their own cotton, they ginned over $30,000 worth for their neighbors. They operate a general merchandise store in which the community post office is located. They have eight tenant houses on their plantation. Frank lives in a very comfortable, well-furnished eight-room house. Owing largely to the influence of these two brothers, their community, Dawkins Crossroads, is one of the most prosperous in the county. The col- ored people here own 2,800 acres of land and control 8,000 acres under leases extending from five to twelve years. J. S. McBride, a former student of Tuskegee Institute, lives in this community. He owns 100 acres of land, 5 horses and mules and 14 head of cattle and hogs. Rigdon D, Harris, another former student of Tuskegee, lives here. He owns 700 acres of land and rents and sub-lets considerable more. He has 30 head of mules and horses and a considerable number of cattle and hogs. Last year he raised 171 bales of cotton worth over $10,000.00. £. H. Gamlin, a former student, is a successful merchant and farmer at Tuskegee. He owns 200 acres of land. He farms a part and rents a part. He has recently established a chicken farm. He owns 10 head of horses and a number of hogs and cows. Last year he sold $200 worth of hogs. He also owns a house and three lots in Pensacola, Florida. In Tus- kegee he owns a house and three lots and 2 1-2 acres of land. For the lat- ter he has refused $2,000. His grocery store is one of the best in the town. He carries a $5,000 stock, and does each year from $15,000 to $20,000 worth of business. A. J. Wilborn, '85, is one of the most successful of the Tuskegee grad- uates. He has been in the grocery business almost continuously since his graduation. In addition to being a merchant, he has also been a farmer on a large scale. He owns a number of plantations in the county, containing altogether 1,250 acres. He also owns a large two-story brick building on the main square of the town of Tuskegee, in which he conducts his grocery business, which amounts to from $11,000 to $15,000 per year. He owns one of the best residences in the town, and other houses and lots, and a half interest in four acres of land within the town limits. He is a trustee of Tuskegee Institute. William V. Chambliss, '90, is one of the most successful men who have gone" out from the Agricultural Department of Tuskegee. He owns 1,000 acres of land in Macon County, and a comfortable home in the town of Tuskegee. In 1901 he took the management of the Southern Improve- ment Company, a philanthropic organization, designed to assist the Negroes to own farms. The company bought a little over 4,000 acres of very poor land in Macon County, Alabama. This land was offered to colored farmers  w Q D Eh CO H S O m M O <i 1'. pq <! J <! cc Z 3 Q < H O 25 Q 01 W Graduates and Former Students in small lots on very reasonable terms. The farmers were given seven years to pay for their land, and the company built houses for them upon the land. The first year 14 farmers were induced to accept the Company's terms. One of them had a mule and a few tools. Everything had to be furnished the others. One of the farmers with a very large family owed a merchant, who had been advancing him, $348. Mr. Chambliss decided to assume this debt in the name of the Company, and give the farmer a chance to see what he could do towards paying for 80 acres of uncleared land. In four year's time, he had cleared his farm, paid for it and a five-room cottage, cared for his family, repaid the $348 with interest and received from the Company $215 in cash. This farmer has since bought forty acres more of land and is able to do his own advancing. This case is an example of the success that Mr. Chambliss has had in getting farmers who have never before been out of debt or owned an acre of land, to become prosperous land owners. The Company has built 70 cottages and between 450 and 500 people are occupying them. About 1,500 of the 4,000 acres of land has been paid for. The Southern Improvement community is now one of the most pros- perous and contented communities to be found anywhere in the South. Mr. Chambliss has aided the people in having better churches, schoolhouses, preachers and teachers. The people are voluntarily contributing from $150 to $200 each year for the education of their children. In 1908 it was found that there were 659 Negro property owners in Macon County; 421 of these were farm owners, their total holdings amounting to 55,976 acres. The greater part of this land has been pur- chased through the influence of Tuskegee Institute, and a considerable por- tion, as already indicated, is owned by graduates and former students of Tuskegee.  CHAPTER II. fVork in the Trades TUSKEGEE graduates are doing excellent work in teaching trades to Negro youths in the various schools of the South. One hundred and fifteen of them are thus engaged. Twenty-six are working in the Public Schools, and 89 in Industrial and Normal Schools. Teaching Trades in Public Schools An account of some of those who work in Public Schools follows: Odie B. Furye, '03, has since his graduation taught manual training in the Public Schools of Dallas, and San Antonio, Texas, and Little Rock, Arkansas. Sandford Richard Showes, '06, is the head of the Manual Training Department of the Covington, Kentucky, High School. During the sum- mer he teaches Manual Training in the Douglass Summer High School of Cincinnati, Ohio. Ernest D. Brown, '07, is instructor in brickmasonry in the schools of Middlesboro, Kentucky. The work so commended itself to the members of the Board of Education that they voluntarily raised his salary. William H. Blasengame, '06, teaches manual training in the High School at Fort Worth, Texas. William Henry Jenkins, '09, is in charge of the Manual Training De- partment of the Central High School, of Galveston, Texas. Percy L. Dorman, '97, has for nine years taught manual training in the High School at Fort Smith, Arkansas. During this time he has taught many of his boys the carpenter's trade, so that their wages have been raised from $1.50 per week to $2.50 per day. Mr. Dorman also carries on a gen- eral contracting business, using his pupils before and after school, on Satur- days, and during vacation. He has built with them and with other help, over a hundred homes in Fort Smith. He does all the brick and stone work, the wood work and the painting. He draws his own plans for buildings. His bank book shows that in five years he has paid out over $50,000 in wages and for material. He owns his own home, which cost about $1,500. George F. Rivers, '04, has charge of manual training in the Colum- bus, Georgia, City Schools.  Graduates and Former Students James B. Nesbitt, '99, is instructor in manual training in the Doug- lass High School, Kansas City, Missouri. Mrs. Elizabeth R. Taylor, '98, teaches domestic science in the Garri- rison Public School, Kansas City, Missouri. Dora E. Williams, '05, teaches domestic science and sewing in the M. W. Gibbs High School, at Little Rock, Arkansas. All the girls in the school, 241, are under her instruction for two years. Margaret E. Walker, '08, has been doing a successful work in domes- tic science in the Public Schools of Paris, Kentucky. In a recent lettter she said: "I have been teaching domestic science and sewing in the Pub- lic Schools of Paris, Kentucky for two terms. I teach it to the 6th, 7th and 8th grades, and in the first three years in the High School. During my first year here, only cooking was taught, but sewing has since been added. I try to make all my work practical, so that the girls can use both theory and practice in the poorest homes. I have been elected for the third term. In order to better help my pupils, I shall study during my vacation at the Hampton Institute Summer School." A number of the graduates and former students are doing industrial work under the auspices of "The Anna T. Jeanes Foundation for the Im- provement of Negro Rural Schools." Mamie L. Gray, '07, is carrying on work under the Jeanes Foundation near Carrolton, Alabama, vvhere she has charge of the industrial work in three schools. She teaches sewing, dressmaking and gardening. Sarah E. Powell, '05, works under the Jeanes Foundation at Ball Ground, Georgia. She writes as follows concerning her work; "In September, 1909, I was assigned by the Jeanes Fund to visit the rural schools in this section and to introduce some kind of industrial work. I have organized sewing classes which I visit at least twice a month. The people are getting interested in the work, and I think, will be willing soon to give more time to it. The schools in this section run three, four and five months. When I have time I organize school farms for the purpose of raising money to extend the school term. The Sewing Class at the Ball Ground School is doing splendid work. We make garments and send them to the nearby towns to be sold. Thus far, the work has given satisfaction. I am having my first-grade girls make quilts and sofa pillows. I do this because there are not enough machines for each one to use. (Signed) Sarah E. Powell. Mrs. Ella Belle McNeal, '06, is doing an excellent work for the Jeanes Foundation in Bullock County, Alabama. She describes her work thus: "The first three dqys I spend at my headquarter's school. On Thursdays and Fridays I visit four other schools. I arrange the work to suit conditions. At each school I have found it necessary to have the yards cleaned, the rooms scrubbed, broken window panes replaced and cloak hooks put up. I assist the teachers in conducting their lessons. I teach sewing and cooking. I give talks on cleanliness, fresh air, the use of water and home making. I have organized the women of each community for the study of better home conditions."  Industrial Work of Tuskegee Teaching Trades in Industrial and Normal Schools Cora B. Burke, '06, is successfully teaching domestic science at Lang- ston University, Langston, Oklahoma. Mary L. McCrary, '97, has for ten years been Superintendent of Girls' Industries at this same institution. Delia Lore Williams, '06, is doing a successful work in domestic science and sewing at Selma University, Selma, Alabama. She describes her work thus: "For three years I have had charge of the Millinery and Domestic Science Departments in Selma University. In the Millinery Department we had an enrollment of 38 girls, and in the Domestic Science Department the enrollment for the last school year was 212. I am very well pleased with my work here." Claudia M. Jones, '06, teaches dressmaking, basketry and cooking at Palmer Institute, Sedalia, North Carolina. Nannie Juanita, Coleman, '08, a very successful industrial teacher, is at present the head industrial teacher, at the Farmers' Improvement Society College, Ladonia, Texas. She gives the following description of her work, during the past year: "The Farmers' Improvement Society College is a very interesting place to work. I found every one ready to help and learn all I had for them. Our school is small, and, the girls, with my aid, do all the work. I have my industrial work very well systematized. Every girl is compelled to take cooking and sewing, and if she desires, basketry and bead work. Our school is poor and therefore is not able to buy all the material for use in our sewing-room. We, therefore try to use the things near us. Our baskets, hats, pin-trays and other little things, we make from shucks and long grass. The girls are interested in the work because it is new to them." John H. Michael, '92, is teaching carpentry and mechanical drawing at Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tennessee. He designed and supervised the construction of the Negro Building for the Appalachian Exposition held at Knoxville in the Autum of 1910. John W. Fentress, '06, is instructor in painting at the Agricultural and Mechanical College, Normal, Alabama. John L. Anderson, '07, is instructor in electrical engineering at the St. Paul Normal and Industrial School, Lawrenceville, Virginia. James R. Patton, '04, teaches blacksmithing at the West Virginia Col- ored Institute, Institute, West Virginia. Last year in addition to his regu- lar work, he ironed three farm wagons, and did custom horseshoeing, re- paired wagons and hay presses and made stonemasonry tools. The plumb- ing work of the school is under his direction. In this connection he did about $200 worth of work, and set up a steel frame water tank, 70 feet high, witfi a capacity of 20,000 gallons.  g m o W l» H o ;> a a 9 o - H3 O Q ao • p o Sd H U 21 50 >^ H d H Graduates and Former Students James M. Canty, '90, has for 19 years been superintendent of indus- tries at the West Virginia Colored Institute, West Virginia. The long number of years he has worked there is a testimonial of his worth. Alonzo J. Fields, '05, teaches carpentry at the Penn Industrial School, Frogmore, South Carolina. He, in connection with his regular instruction, has built up a large trade with the surrounding community. The Tuskegee graduates have been of great assistance in developing the Tuskegee Institute Department of Mechanical Industries. There are now working in this department: William A. Richardson,, '96, Assistant Director of Mechanical Indus- tries. Edward W. Cummings, '96, in charge of the Blacksmithing Division. John C. Jordan, '01, in charge of the Harnessmaking and Carriage Trimming Division. Mitchell D. Garner, '96, in charge of the Carpentry Repair Shop. James A. Bynes, '99, in charge of the Foundry. William L. Wilkinson, '01, in charge of the Tailor Shop, with John C. Moultrie, '07, as assistant. William F. Thompson, '00, in charge of Brickmasonry, with Paris P. Jones, '08, as assistant. William Pearson, '96, in charge of the Tinsmithing Division. Sarence H. Darden, '06, in charge of the Brickmaking Division. Michael B. Stevens, '92, assistant in Printing Division, and Jefiferson R. Pendleton, '07, assistant in Steam Engineering. W^orking at Trades The final test of what a school is doing in the training of its students is what they are able to do, when they go out in the world, along the lines of their training. The individuals who have received training in various trades and have gone out from Tuskegee and worked at their trades, have made good to a very marked degree. In this connection, 374 persons, 173 graduates and 201 former students have been considered. They were distributed in the trades as follows: 2 bakers, 33 blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 5 bookkeepers, 56 brickmasons, 1 cabinetmaker, 42 carpenters, 2 carriagemakers, 1 chauffeur, 1 cook, 1 cooking demonstrator, 1 cotton classer, 5 in domestic service, 31 dress- makers, 3 stationary engineers, 8 electricians, 1 elevator operator, 4 fire- men, 9 harness-makers. 1 hostler, 5 janitors, 1 laundress, 3 laundrymen, 9 machinists, 10 miners, 3 molders, 42 trained nurses, 11 painters, 6 plumbers, 10 printers, 3 sawmill workers, 19 shoemakers, 26 tailors, 8 tinsmiths and 2 wood turners. The following are a few of the individuals working as above:  Industrial Work, of Tuskegee Robert P. Phillips, a former student, has for 13 years followed the blacksmith's trade at Minter, Alabama. His average earnings per month is $75. George L. Rodgers, a former student, is earning $2 per day as a black- smith at Seguin, Texas. James M. Jones, another former student, is a blacksmith at Troy, Ala- bama. Thomas T. Hamilton, '08, receives $3.60 per day as a brickmason in Birmingham, Alabama. Joseph Jackson, of Beaufort, South Carolina, a former student, has worked at the brickmasonry trade four years, receiving from $3.50 to $4.00 per day. When not working at this trade, he works at tinsmithing, which he also learned at Tuskegee, earning from $1.50 to $2.00 per day. Albert E. Adams, '05, has worked at the brickmasonry trade since graduation, at an average daily wage of $3.00. Robert J. Clark, a former student in brickmasonry, is now working at his trade in Savannah, Ga. He writes as follows: "I have constantly followed my trade, brickmasonry. I am laying brick on the largest guano plant ever under course of erection in Savannah. "I am working as a corner man. The contractor asked me to sign a contract to re- main with him until the building is completed, which testifies, I think, as to my worth. I signed the contract. I receive $5.00 per day for my work." D. S. Lowe, a former student, has for six years been working as a plasterer in Atlanta, Georgia, at an average wage of $3.50 per day. He has bought a house and lot in Gainesville, Georgia, and also one in College Park, Georgia. "Since leaving school," he says, "I have been very suc- cessful. I owe it to Tuskegee." Junius H. Stevens, '03, is a successful brickmason at Los Angeles, Cal- ifornia. In a recent letter, he gives an interesting account of his work. He says: "When I left Tuskegee, I was somewhat handicapped at my trade, bricklaying. I went at it for all I was worth and in seven years I have come from the little fellow who backs up behind the other men on the rough work to the "big man" who raises the pressed brick front corners on the building. I have raised my wages from $1.75 a day to $5.50. I have tried to put my money to good use. I bought a five-room house and 7 acres of land at Winchester, Texas, for $380.00. I own a vacant lot at one of the Los Angeles beaches worth $300.00, and ten acres of land in Fresno County, California, worth $1,000- .00. All of these properties are paid for except the Fresno County tract on which I owe /ess than $300.00. As a voucher for these statements, I refer you to the Chamber of Com- merce at Fresno, California.  Graduates and Former Students I have also helped to provide for my mother and father, and to pay for the education of two brothers and a sister in Tillotson College, Austin, Texas. I am proud to state that one of the boys graduated last month. I still retain a small bank account for emer- gencies. (Signed) Junius H. Stevens. Samuel Lacy, a former student, has worked at Uniontown, Alabama, at the carpenter's trade for a number of years. He earns $2.50 per day. Samuel William Mills, of Brewton, Alabama, has worked at the car- penter's trade for 13 years at an average wage per day of $2.50. He also deals in real estate as a side issue at which he makes $40.00 per month. M. M. Edwards, a former student, is a cotton classer at Selma, Ala- bama. During the cotton season he earns $3 to $4 per day. The remain- der of the year he works at the carpenter's trade. Lewis N. Spurlock, '05, earns $72 per month as a machinist at Peoria, Illinois. Chas. H. Spicer, a tormer student, is earning $120 per month as an electrical engineer at Andalusia, Alabama. Arthur Stewart Smith, a former student, who was voted a certificate in steam engineering at the last Commencement, is doing an excellent work in Atlanta, Georgia. He is a night engineer in the Century Building, which is one of the finest office buildings in the city. Its machinery equip- ments consist of a heating plant, a hydraulic elevator system and a refriger- ating plant. An examination of his engine room, engines and mechanical apparatus by an expert showed all to be in the best of order. Since he has been working in Atlanta, he has succeeded in buying a home and has fitted it up with all modern conveniences. Greene Timmons of Dolomite, Alabama, a former student, has been a miner for 28 years. He receives $2.00 per day. Each year he sends $10.00 to Tuskegee to help pay the school's general expenses. He writes that he has some money in the bank. He has $600 loaned out at 8 per cent, inter- est. He has a lot in Birmingham, for which he refused $16,000.00 cash. John Hines and William Brantly, former students, learned the mould- er's trade at Tuskegee. They have worked at it for 13 years. They have worked for a considerable time for the Cahill Iron Works, Chattanooga, Tennessee. They are paid $3.00 per day. John Hines has the distinction of having made for this company the first iron enameled bath tub in the South. The President of the Cahill Iron Works says: Chattanooga, Tenn., July 13, 1910. Mr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Alabama. Dear Sir: We take pleasure in stating that John Hines has worked steadily in our foundry as a  Industrial Work of Tuskegee moulder for ten years, and we have taken occasion time and again to point him out to visitors to our Works as a graduate of your school and as an example of the good work we believe you are doing. He is capable, polite, sober and very industrious; in fact, we only wish we had forty or fifty more just like him. We have had graduates from your school to work for us at different times, and we have never had a bad one in the lot. Very respectfully yours, (Signed) The Cahill Iron Works, Per F. H. Caldwell, President. John H. Loyal, Dothan, Alabama, a former student, has worked at the painter's trade for four years. His average wages are $2.50 per day. William E. Pendleton, Guthrie, Oklahoma, a former student, is earn- ing $2.00 per day as painter. He is also an expert glazier and receives $5.00 per day for this work. John H. Kelley, '05, is a printer in the National Baptist Publishing House at Nashville, Tenn. He receives $50.00 per month. William H. Hunter of Louisville, Kentucky, a former student, has worked at the shoemaker's trade for 7 years. His wages are $15.00 per week. William Bradley of Greenville, Florida, is earning $2.50 per day at the shoemakers trade. Jefiferson Russell, a former student, is working at the harness-maker's trade at Union Springs, Alabama. Luther Peck, a graduate in carriage-trimming in '09, and in harness- making, '10, is employed at the Montgomery Carriage Works, Montgom- ery, Alabama. He began work at $15.00 per week, and is giving good satis- faction as a carriage trimmer. Last year, during vacation, he was employed by the Dufiy Harness Factory, at Opelika, Alabama. Haywood Gyles, a former student in harness-making, is employed by a harness firm at Yoakum, Texas. He is doing good work and his wages are being steadily advanced. Conducting Businesses Connected JVith Some Trade One hundred and two graduates and former students are carrying on businesses in connection with trades. Five are architects, one is in the bakery business, eighteen are conducting blacksmithing and wheel-wrighting busi- nesses, eighteen are in the contracting and building business, one is in the electrical business, one in the florist business, eleven are milliners, five are in the printing business, eight in the shoemaking business, and two are in the tinsmithing business.  CO < .a! en ^ m Qi 2; go 5 m w en o Graduates and Former Students Verner W. Tandy, '05, of the firm of Tandy and Foster, is a success- ful architect in New York City. The Industrial Edition of "Tamany," July 2, 1910, speaks complimentary of his work. Among other things it said, 'The firm of Tandy and Foster have completed many beautiful resi- dences around New York." They are at present superintending the erection of St. Phillips Episco- pal Church and Parish House, West 134th Street and Seventh Avenue, at a cost of $200,000.00. They have received the award for the grounds and the building of the Lincoln Memorial Institute, near Louisville, Ky., where about $400,000 is to be spent, about $100,000 of which is now being ex- pended. They were successful in having their plans accepted for a $20,000 stable at Riverside, New Jersey; a $20,000 school in Nanuet, N. Y., and another at Woodcliff, New Jersey. Altogether, Tandy and Foster will receive commissions this year on about $500,000 worth of work. Charles S. Bowman, '99, is a successful architect in Kansas City, Kansas. The accompanying cut indicates the kind of work he is doing. William Sidney Pittman, '97, is a successful architect in Washington, D. C. He designed the Negro Building for the Jamestown Exposition, the colored Y. M. C. A. Building in Washington, a colored public school of that city, the recently erected Milbank Agricultural Building at Tuskegee Institute, an auditorium and trades building for the Kentucky Colored State School at Frankfort, and four buildings for the Colored School of Durham, North Carolina. Caughey W. Roberts, '06, is in the bakery business at Boley, Oklaho- ma. During the past year his net profits were $1,200.00. William Z. McGill, a former student, runs a horseshoeing shop at Beaufort, South Carolina. His net earnings are from $3 to $4 per day. Lucius A. Banks, a former student in blacksmithing, and Richard Bright, 1900, are conducting a successful blacksmithing and wheelwright- ing shop at Anniston, Alabama. They do from $150 to $200 worth of work per month. Both of them own good houses. Stephen R. Bell, a former student, is running a blacksmith shop at York, Alabama. He has three helpers. He owns his home and other property. James G. Ball, a former student, is in the blacksmithing business at Tus- caloosa, Alabama. He is also in the drayage business. He does each year about $3,500 worth of business. He owns a house and lot in Tuscaloosa, valued at $4,000. William A. Thomas, a former student, who left Tuskegee in 1898, is in the blacksmithing business at Greensboro, Alabama. Mr. Thomas has made a number of useful inventions, the principal one of which is a fuel and smoke condenser. He owns three houses in Greensboro, and a house in  Industrial Work of Tuskegee Birmingham, Alabama. In addition to his blacksmithing business he con- ducts a junk shop. Phillip Knox, a former student, is in the blacksmith and wheelright busi- ness at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He is doing well and has accumulated property, F. L. Jones, a former student, is in the blacksmithing business in At- lanta, Georgia. He recently sent the following letter: Dear Principal Washington: I left Tuskegee Institute in 1899. I have been struggling for eleven years to accom- plish something and am proud to make the following statement of what I am doing: I own real estate in Madison and East Point, Georgia, to the value of $2,600. I also have an account in the Atlanta National Bank. I do not owe a single penny. I enclose a small contribution toward the work of Tuskegee Institute. I hope to make a larger contribution next year. (Signed) F. L. Jones. Thomas H. Bynes, a former student, conducts a horseshoeing estab- lishment at Bainbridge, Georgia. He gives the following account of him- self since leaving Tuskegee: "After I left Tuskegee in February, 1901, I came to Macon, Georgia, and hired to a trainer of race horses to shoe the horses. In May, 1902, I opened business for myself in Bainbridge. I do nothing but shoe horses. I have one man employed as a helper at $1.25 per day. My shop rent is $8.00 per month. I do about $210 worth of work per month. After paying my expenses, I have about $120 left. Since I came here 8 years ago, I have bought and paid for 4 houses. One of these I rent for $11, one for $8, and the other two for $5 each per month." Henry S. Bynes, '04, a brother of Thomas H. Bynes, is conducting a successful wheelwrighting and blacksmithing business, at Gibson, Georgia. He operates two buildings, one for blacksmithing and one for woodworking and painting. He has the leading buggy shop in the county. About 90 per cent, of his customers are white. He gives the following description of his business: Dear Principal Washington: In reply to your kind letter, I am pleased to say that on the seventh of July, 1908, I arrived at this place with only $7.00 in my pocket, being entirely a stranger to the people. I had an interview with some of the leading white business nrten, who, when they learned I had finished my trade at Tuskegee, advised me to open business. I opened a small blacksmith and repair shop. The building was in quite a dilapi- dated state, so much so that I was forced to seek shelter in other neighboring houses, in times of rain and wind. I soon proved my efficiency as a buggy workman; and the con- stant demand for such work, forced me into better buildings and caused me to buy more and bettet shop tools and fixtures. On the first of January, 1910, my business took the name of the Bynes Buggy Works. My books show that 75 per cent, of my business during 1910 is that of buggy work. Through the medium of such journals as American Blacksmith and the Hub, I keep in touch with the best workmen. (Signed) H. S. Bynes.  a m o l> a H SI w H a H o o "a w o l> CD 1^ o w CO d a H Graduates and Former Students The following testimonials from prominent white persons in his com- munity show the esteem in which he is held, and how they view his work: To Whom It May Concern: We the undersigned citizens of Glascock County, Georgia, know H. S. Bynes, and we can truthfully say that his work in his chosen profession, that of woodworkman, has been satisfactory to his customers, and his public and private character has been exem- plary since he has been with us. His exemplary character is worthy of emulation by the people of his race. Would that they all would follow it. (Signed) E. B. Rodgers, Attorney-at-Law; W. T. Kitchens, J. C. Newsome, Attorney-at- Law; John J. Peebles; Thomas A. Walden, Clerk Supreme Court. Robert T. Anderson, Fort Mitchell, Alabama, a former student, is con- ducting a wheelwright shop. He gives the following account of himself: "I left Tuskegee in 1901 and began at Montgomery, Alabama, in a carriage works as helper. After working there for a while I went to Pensacola, Florida, and worked in a carriage factory until April, 1909, when I came home and put up a small shop 16x14 feet. I started with $5.00 worth of tools. I got so much work that I had to double the size of the shop and buy between $75 and $80 worth of tools. I now do a general wheelwight- ing and blacksmithing and painting business. I am now doing my own striping and varnishing, but I will soon have to hire a helper for this part of the work. I am patronized by both white and colored persons. I am earn- ing $3.25 per day." Oliver N. Freeman, '06, Wilson, North Carolina, has worked at the brickmasonry trade since his graduation. He is at present doing a general contracting and brick engineering. His average earnings are about $90.00 per month. Frank Cole, a former student, has for a number of years been a suc- cessful brickmason in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. As a foreman or as a contract- or, he has been connected with some of the largest jobs in that place. He is interested in a grocery store and owns a home worth $3,000.00. William T. Anderson, '09, Abingdon, Virginia, is doing job brick- masonry and contracting work. He earns from $18.00 to $20.00 per week. Samuel L. Morris of Boley, Oklahoma, a former student, is a con- tractor and builder. Among other things, he has established for the town of Boley a telephone exchange, and a lighting system, including generator, boiler, engine and other parts. David McKay, '06, is engaged in the electrical business in New Or- leanes, Louisiana. He wires buildings, installs bells, electric fans and other devices. He is regularly employed. His work is approved by the city in- spectors. He has made a reputation as a reliable and painstaking work- man.  Industrial Work of Tuskegee John L. Anderson, '07, who is an electrical engineer in Abingdon, Vir- ginia, was temporarily in charge of the Electrical Division at Tuskegee. Before this he worked regularly for a firm in Florida, and at the urgent request of its members, left Tuskegee and returned to Florida to work again for them. William E. Foster Pickett of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a former student, has followed carpentry for eleven years. He is now a contractor and builder. He does about $11,000 worth of business per year. He also owns and oper- ates a two-horse dray wagon which earns from $21.00 to $24.00 per week. He has a good home worth about about $3,000.00. Prof. E. A. Smith of the University of Alabama, sends the following testimonial concerning Pick- ett: Mr. Booker T. Washington, Dear Sir: Knowing your wish to keep trace of your former students, I take pleasure in writing you concerning Foster Pickett who was once in your school. Pickett has done a good deal of work for me during the past six or eight years and he has always done it well. In fact he has done better cabinet work for me than any one else has done. I have always found himto be trustworthy and reliable in addition to being a first-rate workman, and if called upon for a recommendation, I should be glad to give him one. If your school turns out many men like Foster Pickett, it is certainly doing good work. Yours very truly, (Signed) Eugene A. Smith, State Geologist. John L. Webb, Yazoo City, Mississippi, a former student in carpentry, has been a contractor and builder for seven years. He makes an average of $100 per month. William A. Bostock, another former student, is a successful contractor and builder at Tuskegee, Alabama. He has been successful in work, and has accumulated some property. He owns a good home valued at $1,500 and 92 acres of land worth $2,000. J. C. Williams is another former student who is a successful contractor and builder at Tuskegee. Associated with him as contractor in brick work, concrete and plastering, is Charles S. Lovette, 1900. They are busy the en- tire year. John H. Calloway, '92, Tuskegee, Alabama, has followed carpentry and contracting and building for 15 years. His average earnings are $75.00 per month. Jailous Perdue of Montgomery, Alabama, a former student, has been a contractor and builder for 23 years. He gives the following account of his work: Montgomery, Alabama, June 12, 1910. Mr. Booker T. Washington, Pear Sir: I received your letter asking for information concerning my work since leaving school,  CO O V. H O O >■ l> M O III o d CO >Ti H 9 a Graduates akd Former Students For fifteen yeirs I auiited in erecting buildings at Tuskegee Institute. As you remember, I was assistant foreman in building the Chapel, Parker Cottage, Thomas Cottage, David- son Hall, Hamilton Cottage and the Principal's home. I was foreman in the building of the Library, Rockefeller Hall and the Academic Building. I assisted in the erection of White Memorial Building and the New Dining Hall. I had entire charge of the erection of the new Milbank Agricultural Building. I have been assistant foreman on some very large jobs in Montgomery, Alabama. I was assistant foreman in the erection of the Exchange Hotel (cost $150,000) and the Bell Building (cost $450,000). I was foreman in the erection of the First National Bank Building (cost $350,000). I worked on the State Capitol, the Montgomery County Court House and the $175,000 First Baptist Church building. I own a good home which cost me $1,400. I drew the plans myself, and had Tuskegee trained men to build it. I own eight lots in Montgomery. I left school in 1891 because I was dull in my literary studies. I decided that it would be better for me to quit school and work at my trade and help to educate my sisters. My brother, A. C. Perdue, who graduated from Tuskegee the same year that I left, and myself, sent three of our sisters to Tuskegee. Two of them remained three years and one four years. Brother and I built a nice home for our father at Auburn, Alabama, at a cost of $600.00. I am glad to say that I have never, in the years that I have been out from Tuskegee, found any trouble in getting work at my trade. Yours truly, (Signed) Jailous Perdue. Augustus C. Perdue, '91, is one of the leading contractors and builders at Muskogee, Oklahoma. He has followed this continuously since gradua- tion. He owns property in Muskogee, Oklahoma, and in Montgomery, Alabama. James R. Banks, '06, Tallahassee, Florida, gives the following descrip- tion of his work during the past year: "A part of the year I was employed as Superintendent of Masonry at the Industrial College at Okolona, Missis- sippi. While there, I built a three-story brick building 90 feet by 52 feet. A part of last year I worked for wages. The greater part of the year I did contracting on a small scale. At the present time I am employed by a con- structing firm which is building a $90,000 building for the Florida Female College at this place. I am only working on this job to keep from loafing for a few weeks. My partner and I have a large contract at Spring Hill, Florida, to do the brick work for a large sawmill which is being erected there. The only time I have had any difficulty in getting work was during the panic in 1907." Frank A. McMurray of Montgomery, Alabama, who left Tuskegee Institute in 1898, worked at the carpenter's trade from that time until 1904, when he entered the grocery business, in which he is doing about $6,(XX) worth of business each year. He owns a combined store and resi-  Industrial Work of Tuskegek dence worth about $4,000.00. White business men of Montgomery send the following testimonials concerning him: To Whom It May Concern: The bearer, F. A. McMurray, has had several business transactions with me which were always satisfactory. He was prompt in his payments and proved himself worthy o' credit. (Signed) J. Levystein, Tailor and Clothier. To Whom It May Concern: We take pleasure in recommending the bearer, Frank A. McMurray. We began business with him in a very modest way several years ago, and we are happy to state that the account is now of large proportions and satisfactory to us. We commend him to the business world as a man of superior character and feel sure he would not incur any obliga- tions which he did not know he could promptly meet. He has always been punctual in his dealings with us, and we predict for him a successful business career. Yours truly, (Signed) J. Loeb Grocery Company, by M. B. Seligman, Secretary and Treasurer. (Signed) Mayer & Mohr Cigar Company, by E. Mayer, President. C. A. Lightfoot, '07, is in the painting business at Tuskegee. He has worked at his trade for ten years. He gets all the work he can do. He owns a farm of 20 acres which he works during his odd time. John J. Owens of Chattanooga, Tennessee, a former student, gets all the work that he can do as a painting contractor. He has followed this trade for 6 years, and his earnings are $20 per week. The accompanying tes- timonials are from persons with whom he has done business: Mr. Booker T. Washington: We have known John Owens for some time and have found him to be an honest and hard working man, as he has bought all of his wall paper from us, we think that he is capable of doing painting or paper hanging. Youts very truly, (Signed) T. H. Payne & Co. Books, Stationery and Wall Paper. Mr. Booker T. Washington, President Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama. Dear Sir: I have known John J. Owens for two years, and he has been doing practically all my painting, etc., during that period. I have always found him to be a hard working, faith- ful and conscientious man. His work has always been good. Yours very truly, (Signed) H. F. Bohr, General Freight Agent, Chattanooga, Southern Railroad. Charles Weir, '05, is a contractor and builder at Nassua in the Bahama Islands. He has worked at bricklaying either for wages or by contract, since  Graduates and Former Students leaving Tuskegee Institute. The following letter concerning him was received from the Bahama Lumber Company: Wilson City, Abaco, The Bahamas, April 6, 1909. Dr. Booker T. Washingtion: The Bahama Lumber Company is constructing quite an extensive general logging and sawmill plant, the expenditure thus far reaching a million dollars. Through the recommendation of a personal friend of the writer, we employed for the construction of the brick work, a man by the name of Charles H. Weir who we understand learned his trade at your institution. The brick work in and about a modern sawmill plant requires a man of exceptional ability in the construction of birner and arches in the boilers, and as the knawledge of the ground work obtained by Mr. Weir was learned at your institution, we wish to commend you very highly on the thoroughness of your instructors if the ability dis- played by Mr. Weir is a fair sample of the students you turn out from your institution. He is not only a first-class'workman, but is very energetic in religious work, and his influence among the colored people here has done much good, and we regret exceedingly that we have not wojk enough to give him steady employment at the wages he is capable of commanding. You have so many students that it is hard to keep track of them, but we wish to state that it is our firm belief that if you keep in touch with this man, giving him such assistance as you can he will not only prove to be a credit to your institution, but will be the means of doing a great work among the colored people in lifting them to a higher moral and social sphere. Yours truly, (Signed) George Quayle, General Manager, The Bahama Lumber Co. Robert H. McClasky, '09, is conducting a successful shoemaking bus- iness in Bloomfield, Kentucky. He opened the shop on June 18, 1909. At the end of the year, his books showed $378.35 worth of business done. His expense and cost of running the business averaged $30.00 per month. This enabled him to save $180 for the first six months, in his business. H. J. Bailey, a former student, is running a shoemaking business in Montgomery, Alabama. He does an average of $100 worth of business per month, and employs two assistants. Buford C. Colson, another former student, is running a shoe shop in Montgomery, Alabama. He does each year about $1,500 worth of business. Thomas J. Bush, '99, is conducting a shoemaking business at Macon, Georgia. Oscar Moody, a former students has conducted a shoemaking business at Waycross, Georgia, since 1907. He gives the following itemized state- ment of his business: Year Cash Expense Profit 1907 $600 00 $325 00 $275 00 1908 836 00 300 04 536 96 1909 952 10 341 23 610 87 1910 January 82 IS 32 42 49 73 February 102 87 43 82 59 05 March 106 10 38 09 68 01 Monthly average profit $58.83.  Industrial Work of Tuskegeb Prominent white citizens of Waycross send the following testimonial concerning Mr. Moody: Waycrois, Ctl., July 18, 1910. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that yie have known Oscar Moody both before taking his trade (shoemaking and general repair) at Tuskcgee Normal and Industrial Institute, and since he has left that institution. We regard him as an exceptionally capable workman. He i* a man of good strong moral character, industrious and resourceful. His strict attention to his business has won for him the confidence of a large number of customers. (Signed) J. J. Wilbers, M. D.; R. A. McCrarie, Dist. Supt., A. C. L. Ry. ;J. E. Dickens, Shoe Merchant; H. C. Seamy, Shoe Merchant; A.M. Knight, J. W. Colly, City Mar- shall; C. E. Murphy, Postmaster; John M. Cox, Mayor; W. J. Pamplin, Matter Mechanic. A. C. L. Ry. Samuel L. Burlong, a former student has, since 1906, conducted a shoemaking business in Birmingham, Alabama. He is doing well and is av- eraging in his business about $3 per day. In the third week of April, 1910, he did $42.50 worth of business at an expense of $15. In the last week of April, he did $30 worth of business at an expense of $10. The following are interesting testimonials concerning Mr. Burlong: Birmingham, Ala., July 25, 1910. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that we have known the bearer, Samuel L. Burlong, for over three years and that all business transactions between us have proved of a very satisfactory na- ture. We will not hesitate in recommending him to any one who would desire a compe- tent and industrious young man in the capacity of his trade. Yours respectfully, (Signed) Birmingham Leather Company, Thos. A. Gambino, General Mgr. Dr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Alabama. Dear Sir:— Regardingthe character of S. L. Burlong, would state that I have known him for three or four years in a business way. He has run an account with me at my store, and I have also given him work. What has appealed to me more than anything else has been the care that he has taken of his mother. The work that he has done for me has been in a workmanlike and conscientious manner. I believe he is worthy of your consideration. Yours truly, C. T. Randall, Merchant. Lovelace O'Neal, a former student, is conducting a harness shop at Troy, Alabama. Emery Cleveland, another former student, is conducting a harness busi- ness at Greensboro, Alabama. Eugene Dibbrell, a former student, conducts a harness shop at Elmore, Georgia.  w W H CO a O o III CO <! SI a o > M Graduates and Former Students Henry V. Stevens, who was voted a certificate in harness-making in 1900, conducts a good harness business in Troy, Alabama. In connection with his harness-making he carries on carriage trimming and shoemaking. He owns a good home and other property. The Probate Judge of Pike County (where Troy is situated) says: To Whom It May Concern: I have known H. V. Stevens for the past five years, and I can say that he has con- ducted himself in a high-toned and gentlemanly manner since he came here, is well thought of by both white and colored and has the respect of all. I consider him one of the best harness-makers that has ever been in this part of the state. He certainly is master of his profession and has the confidence and respect of all. (Signed) A. C. Edmondson, Judge of Probates. The President of the First National Bank of Troy gives the following recommendation : To Whom It May Concern: It affords me pleasure to state that H. V. Stevens of this city is an upright man. I have had considerable dealings with him. He is worthy of the confidence of the business public; he is a harness-maker by trade and his work is of the very highest type. He has not only served the public well in his trade but has made a reputation for fair dealing and has the confidence of the citizens of this city. Respectfully, (Signed) J. S. Carroll, President. Samuel Dudley, a former student, conducts a successful harness shop at Muskogee, Oklahoma. His shop is well equipped with modern machinery. He employs three helpers. James Alexander Page, a former student, has for 9 years been a mer- chant tailor in Eudora, Arkansas. Last year his profits from the tailoring business were about $1,000. He also runs a brickyard, from which he derives considerable profit. Arthur Richardson, who received a certificate in tailoring in 1905, is conducting a successful tailoring business at Evansville, Wisconsin. He em- ploys regularly two or three assistants. He owns property in Evansville and Madison, Wisconsin. James T. Hall, a former student, who left Tuskegee in 1904, is con- ducting a tailoring establishment at Anniston, Alabama. He also has a part interest in a dressmaking establishment which is run in connection with his business as a tailor. He owns a five-room house and some other city prop- erty. Daniel R. and Joseph G. Dorsey, former students, are running a tailor shop in Montgomery, Alabama. Their business per annum amounts to about $2,500.00. Alfred V. Gardner, '04, is a successful tailor at Selma, Alabama. He regularly employs two assistants. He owns 160 acres of land at Burnsville,  Industrial Work of Tuskegee Alabama, 6 acres at Cahaba, Alabama, and an interest in three hpuses and lots in Selma. H, B. Kenan, a former student, is also a successful tailor, and is the senior member of the H. B. Kenan Tailoring Co., Selma, Alabama. He employs 6 assistants and does about $10,000 worth of business each year. His patronage is almost exclusively white. The Mabry Brothers, R. T. '98, and C. T. '01, conduct a large tailor- ing establishment at Birmingham, Alabama. Robert Pleasant, a former student, has for 6 years conducted a tailoring business at Atlanta, Georgia. He is a member of the firm of Mordicue and Pleasant, Merchant Tailors. Jefferson D. Crum, '06, is running a tailor shop at Carbon Hill, Ala- bama. He employs an assistant and is doing well. His average earnings are $3.00 per day. James Andrew Terry, Columbia, Tennessee, a former student, has fol- lowed the tailoring trade for seven years. He conducts his own business and is making $5.00 per day. Joseph O. Dudley is in the tailoring business at Cuero, Texas. He writes as follows: Dear Principal Washington: Some time ago I wrote you asking you to send me two tailors, but since that time I have got them. Should I need any more workmen, I shall call upon you. I left Tuske- gee Institute, June S, 1909, after spending three years in the Tailoring Division. I learned enough in that time to enable me do a fine business. I do my own drafting and cutting and making. I employ one trousers maker, one coat maker and two men for cleaning and pressing. I am doing a very fine business. (Signed) Joseph O. Dudley. James M. Chisholm, '96, for twelve years conducted a tailor shop at Eufaula, Alabama. His business each year amounted to about $5,000.00. He has recently moved to Birmingham and become a member of the firm of B. A. Jones & Co., Merchant Tailors. James H. Kemp, '01, has for eight years conducted a tailoring business at Dora, Alabama. His earnings amount to between $1,500.00 and $2,000- .00 each year. He owns over $ 2,000.00 worth of real estate. The following very complimentary testimonials show the esteem in which he is held in his home town: Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Dear Sir: It gives us pleasure to write you relative to the character and success of one of your former students, James H. Kemp, whom we have known for the past four years, and who has been under our observation daily. He is now conducting a tailoring business and has been since he left school. He is  > r c po t^ V. en > W r So IS 5', 1^ SO ^S B 5 sr >g > w 2 a o > r w CO g > W Graduates and Former Students meeting with a considerable degree of success — getting all the business that he and assist- ants can conveniently handle — a fact which is largely due to his skill and ability in dis- charging his duties. He is very punctual at his work, courteous to his customers and thor- oughly reliable. He enjoys the confidence and respect of both races and attends strictly to his own busi- ness. He is a leader among his race and a fellow of exceptional business qualifications. Very truly yours, (Signed) C. I. Jones, Cashier. Dora, Alabama, August 4, 1910. To Whom It May Concern, Greeting: We are very glad to have the pleasure of testifying as to the ability as tailor, his character and the general bearing of James H. Kemp. We have known him ever since he was a boy and he has always conducted himself in the very best manner. As regards his ability as a tailor, which profession he learned at the Colored School at Tuskegee, we consider him one of the very best in his profession. We have had him to do a great deal of tailoring for us and it has always proven entirely satisfactory. We regard him as one of the best men of his race at this place and think he has done a great deal of good in the uplifting of his own race here. Yours very truly. Palmer Mercantile Co., (Signed) Linn Palmer, Secretary and Treasurer. W. T. Adams, a former student, has for 25 years conducted a tinsmith- ing and plumbing business at Tuskegee, Alabama. He also handles in ad- dition to his tinsmithing and plumbing fixtures, hardware and paints. He is an all around workman, and makes a specialty of manufacturing syrup evaporators. John W. Clark, '00, has for a number of years conducted a successful tinsmithing business in Apalachicola, Florida. A number of women graduates and former students are carrying on business connected with trades. Maude May Stallworth, '09 is a dressmaker at Montgomery, Alabama. She is making $9.00 per week. Lula Jeannette Kimbrough, a former student, has for ten years been a dressmaker and tailoress at Columbus, Georgia. She is earning from $12.00 to $15.00 per week. Birdie Ruth Tubbs, a former student, has followed dressmaking and rriillinery for five years. She makes from $9.00 to $15.00 per week. Mrs. Elmira Turner Chapman, '98, has for several years operated a clothes cleaning and pressing business at Eufaula, Alabama. With her earn- ings she has bought a good four-room house worth $900.00. Mrs. Maggie Foster Jones, a former student, has worked at the dress- making trade for twelve years. She is now conducting a successful business at Asheville, North Carolina. She is making about $15.00 per week. She is public spirited and has organized a Girls' Industrial Club as an auxiliary to the Colored Y. M. C. A. of Asheville. Through this club in one year 132 places of employment were secured. She established in 1909 the "Fos-  Industrial Work of Tuskegee ter-Jones" gold medal to be given each year to the girl in Tuskegee Insti- tute who is the most competent all-around seamstress and dressmaker. There are also a considerable number of graduates and former students who are engaged in business not directly connected with any trade. James A. Armstrong, a former student, is in the real estate and insur- ance business in Washington, D. C. Richard Joseph Hill, '00, is a real estate dealer in Beggs, Oklahoma. He also runs a farm of his own. Wiley James Harris, a former student, is conducting a real estate busi- ness in Montgomery, Alabama. Notihle B. Smith, '97, is conducting a real estate and insurance busi- ness in Birmingham, Alabama. His average earnings are about $185 per month. He is accumulating property. James R. Knox, '09, is cashier of the Safety Banking and Realty Com- pany, Mobile, Alabama. He also owns a half interest in an undertaking establishment. W. W. Greene, '03, is paying teller for the Penny Savings Bank, Bir- mingham, Alabama. William M. Warren, '02, Mound Bayou, Mississippi, is assistant cashier of the Bank of Mound Bayou. Several graduates are conducting drug stores. William Z. Payne, a former student, is running a drug store at Mcre- dian, Mississippi. Alexander G. Allen, a former student, is a physician and druggist at Union Springs, Alabama. His income is about $200 per month. Samuel P. Foreman, '94, is conducting a drug store at Anniston, Ala- bama. David Lee Johnson, '89, is a physician and druggist in Birmingham, Alabama. His income from both sources amounts to about $8,000 a year. He owns a home valued at $5,000. Eugene Ayers, '08, in connection with his brother, conducts a general store at Meridian, Oklahoma. They own their own building and last year sold over $5,000 worth of goods. William L. Peterson, a former student, conducts a combined grocery and restaurant at Opelika, Alabama. He does between $500 and $600 worth of business per month. Isham Hartfield, a former student, is in the restaurant business at Vicksburg, Mississippi. He owns a home valued at $2,000. A. J. Wood, '87, is one of the leading grocers in Benton, Alabama. He has conducted a grocery business in this place for twenty years.  o gl as MO On %^ o en H> >^^ a o> w^ ■^S w§ Kj l-i ^P ■ 2! SO ^S OK Hg O o CO M tS2! J0> o2 O S Sr COO S^ C CO OH M W §^ o r d DO CHAPTER III. Work of Trained Nurses IN 1892 Nurse Training was established at Tuskcgee Institute in order that young colored women might be trained to render efficient service as trained nurses. Since that time 60 graduates have gone out from this department. There has also been quite a number who, although not grad- uating, have received sufficient training to do good work as nurses. A few young men have also taken nurse training. The most of these have later attended medical schools and become physicians. Frank B. Adair, '05, is a practicing physician in England, Arkansas. Curry E. Thompson, '03, is a practising physician in Ensley, Alabama. B. H. Lawrence, '03, has passed the examination before the medical board of the state of Maryland and is practising in that state. John R. Hawkins, 'OS, has just graduated from the Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee, and has successfully passed the medical ex- amination in the state of Georgia. Hezekiah Hurston, '07, is now attending the Meharry Medical Col- lege; Nashville, Tennessee. R. G. Bruce, '08, is attending the Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois. Russell H. Flemming, '02, has for the past seven years been working in the United States Hospital Corps, principally in the Philippines. He is now stationed at Manila. The young women who have gone out from the Nurse Training De- partment have rendered very valuable service in ministering to the sick. They have also been of great serv'ce to their own people by teaching them how to observe the laws of health and sanitation. A brief account will now be given of some of these nurses. Mrs. Malinda Kirkpatrick Russell, '06, is Superintendent of the Lincoln Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana. Ruby L. Washington, '02, has nursed successfully for a number of years at Pensacola, Florida. Mrs. Lula M. Johnson Crawford, '07, has for a number of years done private nursing in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Pauline Dickens, who graduated frcm the Academic Department of Tuskegee Institute in 1904, after teaching for five years is now taking nurse training and is in the senior class of the Nurse Training Department. She has already done successful nursing.  Industrial Work of Tuskegee The following is from one of her patrons in whose family she nursed at Union Springs, Alabama: To Whom It May Concern: PauHne Dickens has been in my home nursing Scarlet Fever for some time. She is a competent, industrious nurse and has given perfect satisfaction to the physician and to my wife. I take pleasure in recommending her. (Signed) J. A. Cook. The Superintendent of the hospital at Griffin, Georgia, who is white, also writes the following commendation concerning Miss Dickens: Griffin, Georgia, July IS, 1910. Dr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Dear Sir: I take pleasure in writing you of one of your pupil nurses — Pauline Dickens. She has helped me out on one or more occasions and given perfect satisfaction. Very respectfully, (Signed) Angela V. Campbell, Superintendent, Griffin Hospital. Mrs. Dora Lindsay Harrison, who lacked a few months of graduating from the Nurse Training Department, has done very successful private nurs- ing in Washington, D. C. Lena Jackson a former student in nurse training is doing good work as a trained nurse in Atlanta, Georgia. She is earning, from $18 to $20.00 per week and keeps busy all the time. Mrs. Lilla E Douglass Johnson, '04, until her marriage was a success- ful private nurse in Macon, Georgia. Mrs. Edith Bradley Mayfield, a former student in nurse training, until her marriage had charge of Hale Infirmary, Montgomery, Alabama. Mrs. Martha E. Jackson Huston, '08, was, until her marriage, a private nurse in Macon, Georgia. Mrs. Margaret Greenlee Smith. '01, was for eight years a very success- ful nurse at Asheville, North Carolina. She writes the following concern- ing her work there: Dear Principal Washington: It is with pleasure that I tell you about my work since leaving Tuskegee. I have been following the profession acquired while there — trained nursing, and I have been very successful. I have worked in a sanitarium at Asheville, North Carolina, my home, and I have tried to put in practice the many lessons learned at Tuskegee of saving what I earned; so I purchased a little cottage with my earnings. I nursed in Asheville regularly from June, 1902 until April 23rd, 1910, at which time I married and moved to New York. Yours very gratefully, Mrs. Margaret Greenlee Smith.  GRAHyATES AND FORMER STUDENTS Petra Pinn, '06, soon after her graduation, took charge of the Hale Infirmary in Montgomery, Alabama, and remained there until two years ago, when she was called to Louisville, Kentucky, to be Superintendent of Nurses at the Red Cross Sanitarium. She is unusually successful in her work. Mary L. Johnson, '96, is doing private nursing in Chicago. She is con- stantly employed and is receiving good wages for her work. Mary Ellen Vaughn, '00, has since her graduation been working suc- cessfully as a trained nurse in Montgomery, Alabama. During her spare time she assists her brother in running a grocery store. She has accumu- lated property. Euphemia Davis, '99, since leaving Tuskegee, has" worked in Selma, and Birmingham, Alabama, and Moreland, Mississippi. For several years she has been nursing continuously in Montgomery, Alabama. Her average wages are $21.00 per week. Mildred Clark, a former student in Nurse Training is doing good work as a nurse at Auburn, Alabama. One of her patrons writes: Auburn, Alabama, September 22, 1910. Dr. Booker T. Washington: Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. I want to say a few words, Dr. Washington, to express my appreciation ot the good work you are doing in your training school for nurses. If Mildred Clark measures the standard which you set no praise can be too high (or ihe good work which you are performing. She was present as a nurse in my family for several weeks during the summer just passed and her services were satisfactory in the high- est degree. She is absolutely faithful and untiring in the sick room. Her watchful care, quiet manner, and patient ministrations are soothing to the patient and contributes to her success as a nurse. She never becomes in the least impatient, but on the contrary is unceasingly attentive to the smallest wish of the patient. Too much cannot be said of her patient endurance. Added to all this she is intelli- gent and good. Yours truly, (Signed) C. L. Hare. Ora Frances Porter, '05,, since her ;gradu,ation has worked continuously as a trained nurse at her home, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Her wages are $3.00 per day. Bessie Lee Mason, '06, is a trained nurse in Bethany, Nebraska. She is earning $15.00 per week. Mary Elizabeth Critteadon, '03, has for seven years followed trained nurs- ing in Salisbury, North Carolina. She earns from $15.00 to $21.00 per week. ^ Anna E. Cook, '09, has be«n unusiially successful as a nurse in Tus- kegee, Alabama. Before receiving her diploma, she was in constant demand  Industrial Work of Tuskegee for outside cases, and before her graduation, she was engaged to do the work for the two leading physicians of the town Every one for whom she has worked speaks very highly of her. Two of her patients send the follow- ing letters of commendation: Tuskegee, Alabama. This is to certify that Anna E. Cook, was in my service twice and gave me perfect satisfaction. She is strictly honest and works faithfully and willingly. She loves her work, and therefore makes a success. She is in my judgment, thoroughly competent to nurse the most serious cases. (Signed) Mrs. J. N. Roberts. To Any One Whom It May Concern: I heartily recommend Anna E. Cook as a Trained Nurse. She has been tried in many cases in our town of Tuskegee. Besides being a good nurse in every sense of the word I believe her to be a good Christian woman, ready to do any good she can. She is intelligent, mild, gentle, and in every way a desirable nurse. I most heartily recommend her to all good people. (Signed) Mrs. Peter Freer. Miss Cook has just removed to Berkeley, California. Immediately aft- er arriving there, she secured work at $18.00 per week. Augusta V. Crosby, '94, has been for several years Superintendent of Nurse Training at the Voorhees Industrial School, Denmark, South Caro- lina. Jeannette Ruby Jones, '07, does trained nursing at Hot Springs, Ar- kansas. She works both in private cases and in hospitals. She receives from $20.00 to $35.00 per week. When not engaged in nursing, she does sewing, at which she earns from $7 to $10 per week. Mrs. Baskins Barr Harris, '91, was for several years one of the most suc- cessful nurses in Los Angeles, California. Out of her earnings she was able to purchase a beautiful home and to support her mother and son. Anliza Rudolph, '05, is doing well as a private nurse at Montgomery Alabama. She keeps busy all the time and earns from $18 to $21 per week. Zula C. Richardson, '03, has been nursing for 6 years. She is now at Hot Springs, Arkansas, and is earning from $15 to $25 per week. Mrs. Lucy R. James, '05, has done the most remarkable work of any of the Tuskegee graduate nurses. After graduating, she nursed success- fully in Florida, Alabama, Illinois and finally in Cleveland, Ohio, where in addition to her regular work as nurse she devoted a great deal of time to working among the colored people of the Cleveland slums. This work at- tracted attention, and Dr. Sutton, one of the white ministers of the city, preached several sermons on her work among the colored people. Mrs. James asked to be appointed as a visiting nurse among the colored people. Because she was the first and only colored nurse who had ever applied for  •*«» Graduates and Former Students this position, she experienced much difficulty in securing it. "After much personal solicitation she received the co-operation of the Business Men's League of the city and of Dr. Ormsby, one of the leading white physicians, his recommendation being given after Mrs, James had successfully nursed one of his patients." Mrs. James was finally appointed, but was compelled to work five months without a salary. Her subsequent work justified the wisdom of her appointment. In two months she made a thousand calls. Not all of her work is at the bedside but a great deal of it is investigating conditions. At one place, she found a man and his wife and two babies living in a coal shed. She succeeded in getting the man a position. He saved his money and took good care of his family. Mrs. James is greatly as- sisted in her work by being a probation officer of the Juvenile Court. Through this agency she is able to rescue many young girls from ruin and restore them to their parents. In one home she found a family of seven. The moth- er was leading a rather loose life. Mrs. James talked with her about the ex- ample that she was setting before her five little children and was able to make an impression upon both her and her husband. Through this family she was able to influence many homes in this vicinity. In another home she found that nine men assembled there regularly to gamble. From here she was able to rescue three young girls from a very bad environment, and finally to suppress the gambling, compelling the men either to reform or to leave the city. She has charge of the medical side of the Wade Day Nursery, where from 70 to 100 children are handled each day. Mrs. James, with much dif- ficulty, established a club room, where she carries on various kinds of work. There is a reading room connected with the club. In another section of the city she has established a Mothers' Club. At the first meeting 170 mothers were present. She lectures regularly at various points on the hygiene of the home. She also assists in the work of the Old Folks' Home, for colored people, visiting the institution once a week. When Mrs. James asked to be appointed to the Visiting Nurses' Asso- ciation, the colored people themselves were very much opposed to it, and before this time had contributed nothing to the fund for paying the vis- iting nurses. Through her appointment and her individual efforts, many colored individuals and organizations have contributed very creditable amounts to the visiting nurses' fund. In several instances yearly subscrip- tions have been secured. Mrs. Robert Ireland, a wealthy Cleveland lady, who has a winter home home on the Pebble Hill Plantation near Thomasville, Georgia, was so im- pressed with Mrs. James' work that she invited her to go to the Pebble Hill Plantation and establish a work among the colored people there. Mrs.  Industrial Work of Tuskegee James accepted the invitation and during her vacation in 1909, began this virork. There was no school for the colored children in that vicinity. Mrs. James visited and wrorked among the colored people and they begged her to start a school for them. She opened up a little industrial school with 39 pupils. That these pupils were really in earnest and were eager to learn was shown by the fact that some of them who lived six miles away walked regularly each day to school. The school was put on a permanent basis and a regular teacher was secured. During the short time that Mrs. James was at Thomasville, she had 47 charity patients, and was given free access to the City Hospital.  b < B ^ O . ■"00 o o- i £ a . J -J O M a 5 S S CHAPTER IV. fFork of Offshoots of Tuskegee Institute TWENTY-THREE Industrial Schools have been directly or indirectly, founded by graduates and former students of Tuskegee Institute. These schools are employing 140 teachers, 62 of whom are graduates or former students of Tuskegee. Through these offshoots 4,062 students in 1910 were being industrially trained and 73,000 people were reached through extension work. John Calhoun Thomas, a former student, who was mentioned above as being a prosperous farmer near Prattville, Alabama, assisted in establishing a niTich needed public school in his community. He gave the school ten acres of land, and has materially assisted in raising funds for a school build- ing and to lengthen the school term from four to eight months. During the past year, he raised $678.34 for these purposes. The 163 pupils of this school are, in addition to their literary subjects, taUght sewing and agricul- ture. The school has a Woman's Improvement Club and a Local Farmers' Conference. Through these two agencies 638 persons are being reached. Mrs. Nannie L. Butler, '08, established December 14th, 1908, the Mary H. HoUiday Public School on the Yellov^ Bayou plantation, near Luna Landing, Arkansas. This large plantation, which belongs to a number of absentee heirs; has eighty tenant Negro families The children on the plantation were to a large extent growing up in ignorance. One of the heirs to this plantation, a Miss Mary H. Holliday, of Berlin, Germany, wishing to do something for the uplifting of the Yellow Bayou people, re- quested that the Tuskegee Institute send a teacher there. When Mrs But- ler arrived she found that there was no school building and only a make- shift public school held in a church. What she has accomplished can best be described in her own words: "I began work here the tenth of Janu- ary, 1908. There seemed to be nothing to encourage me to remain but the pitiful, ignorant faces that I met from day to day. With a determina- tion to succeed, I began to plan how to raise money to build a schoolhouse. I first appealed to the church, but through this means was able to raise only between four and five dollars. Other efforts were not more successful. I was not discouraged, however. One Saturday morning, I borrowed a horSe and saddle to begin- a canvass of the plantation. I explained my plan to the menwherever I could fiiid them, in the field, woods, cotton gin or other places on the plantation. I returned in the afternoon with a subscription list of $80.00. I held my usual Saturday afternoon Mothers' Meeting and  Industrial Work of Tuskkgee raised there $10.00 in subscriptions. The next day at church, the list was increased to $125.00. I then went to the manager of the plantation and asked him if he would advance the money and let the people pay him when the crops were sold. He agreed to this. The county officials agreed to give $100. I then wrote to Miss Holliday, telling her how much we had raised, and for an answer I received her check for $500.00. The people also increased their subscriptions. Thus in fifteen weeks, I was able to raise $950.00, $100 from the county, $350 by cash and subscriptions and $500.00 from Miss Holliday." Mrs. Butler's work so impressed Miss Holliday and her family that they later agreed to build the schoolhouse outright and to allow the $500.00 which she subscribed to go for the equipment of the building, and the amount subscribed by the people to be used for their own improvement. The schoolhouse was built and opened December 14th, 1908. Three teachers are employed. Mrs. Butler teaches the industries which consist of sewing, cooking, housekeeping and gardening. She visits the people in their homes and instructs them in the matter of dress, the care of the home and to take more interest in their children. In this way all the families in the vicinity are being reached, that is, about 400 people. Warren E. Glen, '02, established in 1902 the Cordova Institute at Cordova, South Carolina. During the present year this school employed 3 teachers and enrolled 95 pupils. Sewing, dressmaking and painting were taught. After remaining as principal of this Institute for about one year, Mr. Glen went to Taft, Oklahoma, and founded the Halochee Industrial Institute. This school, in 1906, employed 7 teachers and enrolled 250 pupils. The state of Oklahoma has recently purchased this school and turned it it into a deaf and dumb institute for Negroes. John W. Oveltrea, '93, established in 1898 the East Tennessee Indus- trial Institute, at Harriman, Tennessee. Chas. P. Adams, '01, established in 1905 the North Louisiana Agri- cultural and Industrial Institute, at Grambling, Louisiana. Abner B. Jackson, '90, established in 1893, the Jacksonian Enterprise school at Newville, Alabama. Two teachers are employed and 100 pupils are enrolled. No industries are taught in this school except sewing for girls. W. D. Floyd, '87, established at Hawkinsville, Alabama, in 1899, the Hawkinsville Rural and Industrial School. He has recently built with the help of the state and the Negro Rural School Fund, a very nice building. Colonel Hiram Hawkins, in honor of whom the school was named, and the leading white planter in this community, is president of the board of trus- tees. He has taken a deep interest in the school, and at the close of the last term delivered the commencement address. The present enrollment of  v^A •■ ■- Graduates and Former Students the school is 174. Three teachers are employed. Gardening, cooking and sewing are taught. Through extension work, cooking and sewing are taught in the adjacent schools. In this way about 500 people are being reached. Vernon W. Barnett, '97, has worked in the rural districts since his graduation. In 1906 he established the Charity Industrial School, in Lowndes County, Alabama. The Negroes in this county outnumber the whites almost seven to one. The school facilities are especially poor. Bar- nett has built up a good school with an eight months' term. Two teachers are employed. The most of the money used for the support of the school has been raised by the patrons. They have paid for five additional months of school. Last year they paid $140 for the support of the school. In three years, through Barnett's influence, they have also paid for $100 worth of land and erected a three-room school building worth $800. He sends the following interesting information about his work. Charity Industrial School, Charity, Alabama, Sept. 15, 1910. Dr. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. My Dear Principal: — I am yet serving as princip?! of the Charity Industrial School, where I have been for the past four years. Before I came here the people did not own a school building and the school term was three or four months long. Since our beginning we have paid $100 for two acres of school land upon which we have erected a school building worth at least $800; and instead of a three months term we now have one of eight months. My patrons have done this out of their small earnings, We are now erecting a blacksmith shop in which we hope to teach our boys blacksmith- ing. We also have a sewing class in connection with the other school work and not only our girls, but our community has been very much helped thereby. These necessary improvements have not been accomplished without great sacrifice. Ofttimes my trustees have not been able to pay me in full for my services, but I have not allowed myself to grow discouraged, knowing that this was a worthy field and that some- body must sacrifice to establish and maintain a good school here. I enter the work each year without a dollar in sight and no financial backing except that of my patrons. I accept my salary in syrup, meal, corn, or anything that I can use in my family. In this way I have been able to improve conditions here somewhat. I am going to have my pupils do more agricultural work next term than heretofore. If we had a mule or a horse and the necessary farm tools our students could do so much more toward helping themselves, besides learning a great deal more in the agricul- tural line. To accomplish this, I am asking my patrons and friends to give 100 ears of corn, each. With veiy best wishes for your success, I am, Yours very truly, (Signed) Vernon W. Barnett.  Industrial Work of Tuskegek Byrd T. Crawford.'Ol, established in 1908 the Canfield Normal and Industrial School, at Canfield, Arkansas. He is assisted in this work by his wife, Mrs. Holland Adams Crawford, a former student of Tuskegee, As a basis for industrial work, forty acres of land were purchased. The school was located in the midst of a tract of land that is being used for the purpose of building up a Negro community. A two-story school building has been erected. Industries for girls and boys are taught. Three teachers are em- ployed and 103 students enrolled. N. E. Henry, '93, established in 1902 the Colored Union Literary and Industrial School, at China, Alabama. He is doing a successful work here. Five teachers are employed. In addition to himself, two of these are gradu- ates of Tuskegee, Mrs. M. V. Henry, '04, and Annie P. Cuningham, '08. Mrs. Henry is doing an excellent work in superintending the industries of the girls and working among the women of her community. Cooking, sew- ing, gardening, and basketry are taught. Ninety-two students are enrolled. This school is the headquarters of the Jeanes Fund Rural School Work in Conecuh County, Alabama. By this means and through the farmers' con ference and mothers' clubs, between 2,000 and 5,000 people are being reached. Mrs. Lula J. Davidson, '96, was the prime mover in. establishing in 1900 at Centerville, Alabama, the Centerville Industrial Institute. Mrs. David- son died in June, 1908. The school is now carried on by her husband, H. D. Davidson. The school property is valued at $7,250 and consists of 85 acres of land, 3 school buildings, and live stock and implements. One hundred and thirty-six pupils are enrolled and 4 teachers are employed. Two of these are from Tuskegee. Grace Belcher, '08, and Lula M. Russell, a former student. Sewing, cooking, housekeeping, fancy needlework and truck gardening are taught. A summer institute for teachers is carried on. One of the industrial teachers spends two-thirds of her time in the various rural schools of the county, teaching, cooking, sewing, housekeeping and the improvement of the schools. In this and in other ways, about 800 peo- ple are being reached. Arthur W. Mitchell, a former student, and Mrs. Eula King Mitchell, '03, established in 1908, at Panola, Alabama, the West Alabama Normal and Industrial Institute. Four teachers are employed and 260 students are enrolled. Agriculture, blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, carpentry, sewing, cooking, housekeeping and laundering are taught. Through the farmers' conference over a thousand people are being reached. Mr. John A. Rogers of Gainesville, Alabama, writes the following commendatory letter concern- ing Mitchell: [SO] Graduates and Former Students Gainesville, Alabama, March 5, 1910. Dr. Booker T. Washington: Dear Sir- Less than two years ago, I gave ayoung Negro, Arthur W. Mitchell, 80 acres of land on condition of his building structures on the same to be used in establishing an Agricul- tural, Industrial and Mechanical School. He has exceeded my expectation in the energy and ability shown by him. He had do money and I gave him three years in -vhich to erect these buildings. He went into the wood's with an axe and with his own hands felled the trees out of which the rough lumber was cut. Better than his energy and ability, which are essential to success he has shown a spirit of morality and good citizenship which has had its effect among the people. I believe him to be worthy of aid and encouragement, and that his example will be of great beneht to the Negroes in this section of the South. I am myself, an Alabamian, the descendant of slave-owners since the foundation of our government, and as my fathers were largely responsible for the presence of the Negroes in America, I feel it my duty for this reason, and foi the highest reason that it is the duty of the strong to help the weak, to put these people in the way of earning an honest living, which must come through a training of their hands, their minds and their hearts. (Signed) John A. Rogers. Cornelia Bowen, '85, established in 1889 the Mt. Meigs Colored Insti- tute at Waugh, Alabama. Here for over 21 years she has labored for the upbuilding of the people, and has built up a very successful industrial school. Seven teachers are employed, and 289 pupils are enrolled. R. R. Edmond- son, '07, has charge of industries for the boys, and Kate A. Bowen, a former student, is matron. Sewing, housekeeping, blacksmithing and carpentry are taught. Through the farmers' conference and mothers' meeting, about 2,000 people are being reached. Miss Bowen is also very active in the work of the State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, which has established at Mt. Meigs a Reforma- tory for colored youths. She has the superintendence of the reformatory Arrangements have been made whereby juvenile delinquents are sent to the Reformatory from the various courts of the state. This Reformatory is rapid- ly becoming an important factor in preventing wayward youths from becom- ing confirmed criminals. These boys are taught reading, writing, arithme- tic and farming. Russell C. Calhoun, '96, established in 1899, by planting one and one- half acres of sweet potatoes, the Robert Hungerford Industrial School at Eatonville, Florida. This is one of the most successful o£F-shoots of Tus. kegee. It has had a steady and consistent growth. Fourteen teachers are employed and 210 students are enrolled, agriculture, tinsmithing, plumb- ing, basketry, broommaking, sewing, cooking and laundering are taught. Mr. Calhoun is assisted in his work by 6 other graduates and former students of Tuskegee. J. J. Harris, a former student, has charge of the agricultural  Industrial Work of Tuskkgee work. Henry Wood, '09, has charge of carpentry. Margaret R. Richey, '07, is assistant head of the academic work. Bessie Storey, '07, has charge of basketry and broommaking. M. B. Flemming, '06, has charge of tinsmith- ing and plumbing. Mrs. M. C. Calhoun, a former student, is the director of the girls' industries. This school is the headquarters for a Jeanes Fund teacher, who, during the past year, extended the school's usefulness to 6 public schools in the vicinity. Through the farmers' conference, the Jeanes Fund work and other agencies, about 2,000 people are being reached. The following report of the last annual commencement gives an idea of what is now being done by this institution: "Two hundred and ten students have been enrolled during the year. Of these 112 have been in the boarding de- partment. Girls and boys have been about equal in number. Especial stress have been laid on those principles which young people should learn early in life, the saving of a part of their earnings, however small, and a proper respect toward all persons and all classes at all times. Of the heads of differ- ent departments, five have been trained wholly at the Robert Hungerford School and they are among its most faithful and efficient workers. There have been added during the year an excellent tin shop, a first-class planer, which increases the value of our lumber at cash $6 per thousand, a turning lathe and wood saw. Through the kindness of two good friends, fifty- eight additional acres of land have been secured. One of these tracts has on it an orange grove of about 400 bearing trees and promises to yield this year at least 1,000 boxes. In addition to these there are about 45 acres of very valuable native pines on the tract. "The sawmill has cut over 40,000 feet of lumber during the year, and much of this has been planned, tongued and grooved and a great deal made into manufactured articles. The farm produced 450 bushels of sweet pota- toes, large quantities of hay and vegetables, 900 pounds of pork, 425 pounds of butter, 800 gallons of milk, 275 chickens and turkeys and large numbers of eggs. More and more attention isbeing given to the farm. Two pairs of mules are very much needed for it. Over three hundred choice young or- ange and grapefruit trees have been planted this spring. "Much work has been done through the Negro Conference and other forms of work outside of school work proper, and yet the school closes the year free of debt." April 14th, 1897, Elizabeth E. Wright, '94, established at Denmark, South Carolina, the Voorhees Industrial School. The school was opened upstairs over an old storehouse. Chairs, benches and a bell had to be bor- rowed. "There was nothing with which to begin such work, but the founder decided to make something out of nothing." The number of stu- dents soon grew from 14 to 250 and the little room became so overcrowded  s^% -■% \ "^A: Graduates and Former Students that one of the white citizens of the place, the Honorable C. G. Mayfield, became interested in the work which Miss Wright was trying to do and made it possible for 20 acres of land and two old plantation houses to be se- cured at a cost of $2,000. From this small beginning the school has grown until at present it has 400 acres of land, 15 buildings, 14 head of horses and mules, 50 hogs, 10 head of cows and 7 vehicles of various kinds, with a total value of $55,000. This work remains as a monument to Miss Wright, who died December 14th, 1906, as a result of her unremitting labors for the ad- vancement of the interests of this school. Gabriel Miller, '00, succeeded her as principal. 19 teachers are employed and there are 433 students. 20 industries are taught. They are blacksmithing, broommaking, wheelwright- ing, carpentry, woodturning, painting, plumbing, printing, bricklaying, me- chanical drawing, shoemaking, general agriculture, stock-raising, dairying, poultry raising, cooking, sewing, millinery, nurse training and laundering. In addition to the principal, 9 other graduates of Tuskegee are assisting in this work. Martin A. Menafee, '00, is treasurer and assistant principal; Edward D. Jenkins; '01, is farm manager and United States Agricultural Demonstration Agent; Grant A. Johnson, '04, has charge of the live stock division; William S. Little, '03, carpentry; Augusta Crosby, '94, nurse training; Roxanna Menafee, '03, boarding department; Emily Harper, '04, music and literary teacher; Janie Williams, '04, millinery; Rosa Williams, '07, sewing. Two branches of extension work are carried on, the farmers' confer- ence work and the United States Agricultural Demonstration Work. Through these two agencies about 10,000 people are being reached. William J. Edwards graduated from the Tuskegee Institute in 1893. The following year, with fifty cents and three students, he established, in a log cabin at his home in Wilcox County, Alabama, the Snow Hill Normal and Indusrial Institute. From this small beginning there is now a school with 33 teachers and 371 pupils. The school plant consists of 3,950 acres of land, and 21 buildings, with a total value of about $90,000. Fifteen industries are taught. They are blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, carpentry, saw-mill- ing, brickmaking, brickmasonry, painting, printing, general farming, truck gardening, dairying, cooking, sewing, laundering and basketry. Thirteen other graduates and two former students of Tuskegee Institute, are assisting in the Snow Hill work. Henry A. Barnes, '93, is Treasurer and Assistant Principal. Edward D. Whitehead, '96, is the head of the Academic Department. Edwin H. Lee, '02, is a teacher in the Academic Department. Ralph A. Daly, '03, is Superintendent of Industies. Wallace W. Hays, '09, is Director of the Agricultural Department. W. C. Cheers, '03, is in charge of the school farm. Elcano N. Johnson, '97, is Command- ant. Reuben M. Fatton, '03, has charge of the Boarding Department.  Industrial Work of Tuskegee Belle E. Williams, '09, teaches basketry; Mary M. Hill, '08, laundering; Nancy M. Gaines, a former student, is matron; Miss Elizabeth Cook, '06, has charge of sewing and dressmaking; and Harry Sims, '08, has charge of the United States Agricultural Demonstration Work. Much good has been done among the people of the community. When the school was first started, the colored people did not own more than 20 acres of land. Now, within a radius of ten miles, they own more than 10,000 acres. Their farms range in size from 20 to 500 acres. The one-room log cabins have been replaced by cottages with from two to five rooms. New public schools and churches have been built, and in some cases the school term extended from 3 months to eight months. Both the teachers and preachers are of a much higher grade than those who formerly worked in that section. Extension work is carried on through the Black Belt Improvement So- ciety, a Farmers' Conference, Agricultural Demonstration Work, a mothers' club, and the ministers' association. One of the Snow Hill graduates, Mrs. Marina B. Clark, works under the Jeanee Fund among the rural schools of the county and is doing much in the various communities where she visits, in addition to teaching industrial work, by helping to improve the home life of the people. Harry Sims, '08, travels over the entire county, and teaches the 5,000 Negro farmers how to farm according to the latest improved methods. He also organizes the farmers into clubs for the improvement of their gardens and their homes. Through these various extension activities, about 15,000 people are being reached. Counting those who have received their dij^lomas and certificates, and those who remained at the school long enough to receive industrial training, Snow Hill has sent out somethmg like 600 young men and women. They are working as farmers, carpenters, blacksmiths, printers, brickmasons, wheel- wrights, seamstresses, in domestic service, and as teachers. Three of the graduates have started industrial schools of their own. John Thomas who graduated from Snow Hill in 1901, established at Furman, Wilcox County, Alabama, in 1906, the Hopewell Mental and Manual Training School. Two teachers are employed and 175 people are enrolled. Farming and cooking are taught. This school is located in a section of the county where education is very much needed. The Superintendent of Ed- ucation of Wilcox County and Mr. N. D. Godbold, a prominent lawyer of the county, have issued the following statement concerning Mr. Thomas: Camden, Alabama, May 14th, 1910. To Whom It May Concern: We have known lohn Thomaa, the principal of Hopewell Mental and Manual Train- ing School, Furman, Alabama, for nine yean. We consider him one of the best equipped  Graduates and Former. Students teachers of his race in this section of the country. We have found him honest, capable, and devoted to his work. It seems to be his earnest desire to elevate his race along the right lines, and we believe he should be encouraged. He has shown considerable executive ability in that he founded a school in the woods three years ago and now has two buildings and five acres of ground. We feel confident that any assistance you may render him will be properly used for the advancement of his cause. Very truly, (Signed) N. D. Godbold, Attorney-at-Law, Will M. Cook, Superintendent of Education. Emanuel M. Brown, who graduated from Snow Hill in 1904, es- tablished that same year the Street Manual Training School at Richmond, in Dallas County, Alabama. This school now has 30 acres of land and four buildings. 225 students are enrolled and 4 teachers are employed. Cook- ing, sewing and agriculture are taught. One of the teachers visits the neighboring public schools and teaches industries in them. A monthly farmers' conference is held. Emanuel D. McDuffie, who also graduated from Snow Hill in 1904, established September 18th of that year the Laurinburg Normal and Indus- trial Institute, at Laurinburg, North Carolina. 305 students are enrolled and 10 teachers are employed. Seven of these are graduates of Snow Hill Institute. Seven industries are being taught, namely: sewing, cooking, housekeeping, farming, wheelwrighting, blacksmithing and laundering. The extension work of the school is carried on largely through the Jeanes Foun- dation. The school is helping the people generally. "Where there was ignorance and indifierence, now there is a fair measure of thrift and intelli- gence. The people are buying homes and property, and in many ways showing signs of aspiration for a better and more useful life." The school's extension work is reaching about 3,000 people. William H. Holtzclaw, '98, established in 1903, the Utica Normal and Industrial Institute, at I tica, Mississippi. What has been accomplished in the seven years since the establishment of the school is best stated in Mr. Holtzclaw's own words. In a letter to Principal Washington under date of October 22, 1909, he says: "It is seven years ago today since I came to the state of Mississippi and began work as a public school teacher in this locality. One year later I began building up what is now known as the Utica Nor- mal and Industrial Institute. Although we started without means or prom- ise of help from any direction, and began work in the open air, in the forest with only the trees for a shelter, we have grown steadily by hard work and close application until today we have a fairly well organized institution with four large buildings and more than thirty smaller houses of various kinds, with an enrollment of between three and four hundred students, and em- ploy twenty-nine teachers and officers. At this time the institution owns  Industrial Work of Tuskegee more than fifteen hundred acres of land, all paid for, and its property is val- ued at about $100,000, all of which is deeded to the board of trustees who control its management." The enrollment for the last year was 402. Eighteen industries are taught. They are carpentry, blacksmithing, printing, shoemaking, brickmasonry, plastering, painting, sewing, millinery, cooking, laundering, housekeeping, stock raising, dairying, agriculture, sawmilling, cotton ginning and wheel- wrighting. Five other teachers are graduates of Tuskegee Institute. Mrs. Mary E. Patterson Holtzclaw, '95, is director of the girls' industries. Walter Nicholson, '07, has charge of agriculture; Mary Edna Barland, '07, teaches millinery; Mrs. Effie Holtzclaw Davis, '04, is principal of the night school; Lucy L. Clopton, '98, teaches English. The teachers of the institution are organized into a community im- provement society. A specified territory is assigned to each teacher. They are held responsible for its advancement morally and otherwise. There is a strong farmers' conference. Altogether, it is estimated that the school's ex- tension work is reaching 25,000 people. The last Annual Report of the Principal of the Utica Normal and In- dustrial Institute graphically sets forth what has been accomplished in the improvement of the people. "From the beginning the aim of the institution has been to make it- self a power for good in this community and throughout this section of the country, not only through the medium of its students, but by reaching the people directly as far as possible. That this aim is being realized in a greater and greater measure, is shown by the changed conditions throughout this section; for wherever the influence of the institution has been felt, there are clearly noticeable a higher moral tone, marked religious changes, and a greater material progress. For example, six years ago, men and women in not a few instances were living together as man and wife without the sem- blance of a legal tie and rearing their children, but today no such conditions can be found anywhere in the community, and public sentiment would not tolerate them. Six years ago, every church in this community had to close its doors before the sun went down, not daring to attempt religious servi- ces at night on account of the character of their congregations; today, serv- ices are held in all the churches at the pleasure of the worshippers. Six years ago there were few, if any, men in this community who owned a home; today more than 3,000 acres of land are owned by Negroes, and many of them are erecting comfortable cottages, planting fruit and shade trees, and making real homes for themselves and their families. These are a few of the many changes which have taken place during the six years this institution has been permitted to work in this community.  Graduates and Former Students There hav6 been 28 graduates from the school; all but one of these are living and doing honorable work as teachers or at their trades. In the seven .years of this school's existence, 400 other young people aside from the graduates, have received more or less industrial training and many of these are doing wrell at their trades or as teachers," The Utica Normal and Industrial Institute has two ofishoots. In 1904 a student of Utica Institute established at Florence, Mississippi, the Spring Hill Normal and Industrial School. It has 3 teachers and 220 students. Cooking, sewing and agriculture are taught. G. W. Williams, a graduate of the Utica Institute, established in 1907, the Mississippi Industrial High School at Crystal Springs, Mississippi. 4 teachers are employed and 80 pupils are enrolled. Sewing, laundering, cooking and farming are taught. Caladonia Clausell, '08, teaches sewing and is matron. This school through its teachers, does a somewhat extended extension work. Each day after school hours they visit among the people and hold at least once a week, a night meeting. Every Sunday, some church several miles away is visited. There, of course, the largest crowds are met. Some of these churches have a membership of six or seven hundred, and on their big meeting" days the majority of them are present. The principal esti- mates that the school's extension work is reaching about 4,000 people. In order to better carry on the extension work, and to give a larger opportunity for farming, the school has recently moved its location a few miles and pur- chased 70 acres of land in a community where there is only one white family. Schools Headed, but not Founded by Tuske- gee Students There are six schools which, although not founded by Tuskegee graduates are headed by them. Joseph S. Shanklin, '01, has for seven years been principal of the Port Royal Agricultural School, near Beaufort, South Carolina. This school is designed to assist the Negroes of the Sea Islands along the South Carolina coast: The object of the school is especially to train boys and girls to be farmers. The school has 800 acres of land and 4 good buildings. Cooking, sewing, housekeeping, laundering, blacksmithing, farming, care of stock and poultry-raising are taught. The principal of this school is efficiently assisted by his wife, India Gordon Shanklin, '04, who has charge of the industries for girls and helps generally to mianage the affairs of the institution. [573 Industrial Work of Tuskeobe Through the farmers' conference, a very excellent work is being done and about 5,000 people are being reached. William H. Carter, '93, has for ten years been principal of the Topeka Industrial and Educational Institute at Topeka, Kansas. When he took hold of this school it was but little more than a name. It now has 105 acres of land, and school buildings and other equipments worth over $50,- 000. The state of Kansas gives some assistance to this institution. The state has just erected for the school, a $17,000 academic building. Cooking, sewing, housekeeping, carpentry, printing, painting, tailoring and farming are taught. During the past year 112 pupils were enrolled and 7 teachers were employed. With one exception all the teachers are gradu- ates of Tuskegec Institute. Marcellus W. Freeman, '01, teaches printing; Albert J. Shootes, '97, tailoring; E. P. Rowell, '06, carpentry; Mary E. Fos- ter, '07, sewing; Anna E. Arnold, '07, sewing. Isaac Fisher, '98, has for eight years been principal of the Arkansas State School for Negroes, the Branch Normal College, at Pine Bluff. Ten teachers are employed and 302 pupils are enrolled. Sewing, car- pentry, blacksmithing and machine shop work are taught. The Christianburg Industrial Institute, at Cambria, Virginia an insti- tution under the auspices of the Friends Freedmen's Association, has for the past fourteen years had a graduate of Tuskegee Institute as its principal. Charles L. Marshall, '95, was principal here from 1897 to 1906. When he was put at the head of this work, it was in such a bad way that the Friends Association had discussed the advisability of discontinuing it. He took hold of the work, developed the industrial side and made the Institute one of the strongest of the smaller industrial schools of the state. Mr. Marshall died in 1906, and was worthily succeeded by Edgar A. Long, '95. He has been ably assisted in this work by his wife, Annie L. Patterson Long, '95. The Christiansburg Institute now has 266 students and 11 teachers. Cooking, sewing, laundering, carpentry, printing and fanning are taught. A model experiment farm for the farmers of the vicinity is maintained by the Institute. A farmers' conference is held. The Institute has charge of the County Teachers' Association. A summer normal for teachers is held each year. Through these activities about 2,500 people are being reached. Walter S. Buchanan, '99, was in 1909 put at the head of the Alabama State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, at Normal, Ala- bama. This is one of the oldest and best equipped of the colored industrial schools. It employs 32 teachers, and enrolls 390 students. Cooking, dress- making, millinery, laundering, nurse training, blacksmithing, whedwright- ing, carpentry, brickmasonry, painting, plumbing, printing, steaiti engineer  z > - < CD m 00 !0 - > Graduates and Former Students ing, electrical engineering, shoemaking, tailoring and agriculture are taught. Seven graduates and former students of Tuskegee are assisting Mr. Buchanan. John H. Pinkard, '99, is secretary and business manager; Robert L. Campbell, '03, is instructor in machinery and engineering; Mrs. Alice Mulligan Campbell, a former student, is matron; Luther A. Van Hoose, '96, is instructor in wheelwrighting and blacksmithing; John W. Fentress, '06, is instructor in painting; Waverly B. Buchanan, a former student is commissarian; MoUie R.Ardis, a former student, is librarian. Through the Farmers' Institute, and the United States Agricultural De> monstration Work, and through the Jeanes Fund rural school work, effect- ive Extension Work is carried on.  CHAPTER V. The Value of An Industrial Education IN the foregoing chapters it has been shown that Tuskegee graduates and former students, through their work in agriculture, in the trades, and through the offshoots which they have established, are exerting a wide influence in the South. In this connection the question naturally arises as to how much financial benefit a training at Tuskegee is to the individuals thus trained; also how much of a return does the public get for the money which it has expended in the training of these persons, and how much economic benefit their train- ing has been to the South. These questions are now considered. Most of the courses at Tuskegee cover a period of three years, but many students after two years of practical training are ready to do industrial work profitably. In a large number of instances, also, those who remained at Tuskegee only one year have been able to go out and immediately begin work at a trade, receiving almost from the beginning the full wages paid in the trade. The great demand in the South for persons to work in the trades has had very much to do with students leaving Tuskegee after remaining one or two years. A very large majority of the students who have attended Tuskegee were adults when they entered the institution. Before entering these adults had generally an earning capacity of from $5 to $10 per month, and from fifty to seventy-five cents per day. After remaining at the in- stitution from one to three years the average student is in demand at wages ranging from $1.50 to $3.00 per day with increase of pay as he gains experience. The exceptional ones are able to command almost at once from $4.00 to $5.00 per day. A very large percentage of the individuals who go out from Tuskegee generally earn money by doing more than one thing. As for example many of the teachers also do farming. Many individuals have also accumulated profit-paying property and thus increased their income, which is equivalent to increasing their earning capacity. Those individuals who have been out from the Institution for a considerable length of time, by means of securing better paying positions, doing more than one thing, and through their prop- erty, are constantly increasing their income, that is, their earnings. The average earnings of persons trained at Tuskegee it appears, is about $700 per year. Their average earnings before attending Tus-  o o X o S h Graduates and Former Students kegee was about $100 per year. Their earning capacity has therefore been increased about 600 per cent. A careful estimate indicates that since the foundation of the institution, two years of training have been given to approximately 9,000 persons. The average length of time that these 9,000 students have been out is 14 years, during which time, their estimated earnings have been $88,200,000. If they had not received an industrial training, they would have earned during the 14 yews only $12,600,000.00. That is, by receiving an industrial training, they have been able to earn $75,600,000.00 more than they would have earned had they not received this training. One of the cardinal teachings of Tuskegee is, "have a bank account, get a home and own property." This teaching has been most successfully carried out. It is very seldom that a person from Tuskegee Institute is found who does not have a bank account, who has not accumulated some property, and who is not trying to own a home. If they have lived in a community for a considerable length of time they are generally found to be among the largest property holders there. Numerous instances have been cited above where these property holdings were quite large, in several instan- ces ranging from $20,000 to $40,000. Exact information was obtained concerning the property holdings of 242 of the persons included in this study. These 242 persons each owned an average of $4,000.00 worth of property. This is of course much above the average for all the persons who have gone out from Tuskegee. It is probable, however, that the property holdings of all the graduates and former students of Tuskegee amount to $15,000,000, which is about an average of $1,700 per property owner. This is consid- erably above the average of Negro property holdings. This is due to the superior earning power of the Tuskegee trained persons and to habits o' thrift and industry which are inculcated in them while they are at Tus- kegee. As noted above, the average earnings of the persons from Tuskegee is about $700 per year. That of the average Negro person is about $300 ayear or less. That is to say, an individual from Tuskegee Institute, in addition to the habits of thrift and industry which he has acquired, through his increased earning capacity has also much more to invest in property than the ordinary man. In the foregoing it has been shown that a training at Tuskegee is finan- cially very profitable. It now remains to consider the returns which the public has received for the money which it had expended in the training of Tuskegee students, and how much economic benefit their training has been to the South. In the first years of Tuskegee Institute, the average yearly cost to the institution for the instruction of a student was about $40. In the course of  Industrial Work of Tuskbgbk 29 years, because of the increase in the size of the plant, more expen- sive apparatus, and greater expense of operating, the cost per year to the Insti- tution for the instruction of a student has risen until it is about $134. For the 29 years the average cost per student has been about $81.50. (The cost of training a student is, strictly speaking, much less; for with the same educational plant and practically the same expense by means of a varied ex- tension work each year thousands of outside persons are reached.) The total cost to the Institution for the training of students has been approx- imately $1,467,000. About 9,000 persons or almost three-fourths of all those attending left the institution fitted to do industrial work. The funds, which Tuskegce Institute has expended in the training of her students, came originally from the public. Not counting those persons who remained at the institution only a short time, the public, on 9,000 stu- dents, has expended approximately $1,467,000. Before this money was ex- pended, the earning capacity of each of these students was about $100 per year. Reckoning their ability as capital and the wages which they could command as interest upon this capital, this would make the ability of each student, on a six per cent, basis, worth $1,666.66, and the ability of the 9,000 about $15,000,000. After these students had received their industrial training, they were able on an average, to command as wages $700 per year. Reckoning this as interest upon the value of their ability, we have the ability of each of them on a 6 per cent, basis in round numbers to be about $11,700.00, and the value of their total ability to be $105,300,000. That is, by means of the $1,467,000 which the public expended in the train- ing of these students, the value of their ability to the country has increased $90,300,000. The county, therefore, has received a return of 600 per cent, on the capital, which has been invested in the training of these 9,000 students. It now remains to consider what has been the economic value to the South of the training of students at Tuskegee Institute. The South has received great benefit from the industrial training of these persons because with some few exceptions all of them are at work in the South. If we reckon the working people as so much capital available for its development, then on the basis of the estimate made above, these 9,000 students without industrial training would have been economically worth about $15,000,000 to the South; but by means of industrial training their economic value has been increased $90,300,000. It can be said, then, that the industrial train- ing of persons at Tuskegee Institute has been worth that much to the South. The returns to the South from the training of these students are even greater than this. The Principal of Tuskegee Institute has always said  Graduates and Former Studejjts that in his opinion the greatest thing that the school has done was to teach the dignity of labor. The persons who have gone out from Tuskegee Insti- tute are leaders. They have Spread the doctrine of the dignity of labor. By their example they have exerted a profound influence upon the Negroes of the South. They have assisted in improving the moral conditions of the people. In this way they have directly and indirectly helped to improve economic conditions; since discipline, sobriety, order, and better family life, all tend to economic efficiency. They have materially helped to raise the standard of agriculture and to make Negroes better farmers. Just as Tuskegee taught them, they have taught the people, "to have a bank account, get a home and own property." The work at Hilton Head, at the Snow Hill Institute, and at the Utica Institute are but prominent examples of what Tuskegee students are doing in many places to make it possible for a large number of people to acquire property. In conclusion, then, it may be said that Tuskegee's graduates and former students through what they are doing in the teaching of trades and agriculture to thousands of students, through agricultural demonstration work, through the schools which they have established, through their own work in the trades and in agriculture, and through their personal influence, are each year increasing the returns for the money expended for their educa- tion. By their accumulation of property, by their increased industry and elH- ciency and by their assistance in getting the masses of the Negroes to accumulate property, and to be industrious and efficient, they are doing much for the development and prosperity of the South.